Adderall


Adderall is a combined drug containing salts of the two enantiomers of amphetamine, a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine class. Adderall is used in the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. It is also used as an athletic performance enhancer and cognitive enhancer, and recreationally as an aphrodisiac and euphoric. The active ingredients of Adderall are 25% levoamphetamine salts (the levogyre or the “left” enantiomer) and 75% dextroamphetamine salts (the dextrogyre or “right” enantiomer).

Adderall is generally well tolerated and effective in treating the symptoms of ADHD and narcolepsy. At therapeutic doses, Adderall causes emotional and cognitive effects such as euphoria, change in sexual desire, increased arousal, and improved cognitive control. At these doses, it induces physical effects such as decreased reaction time, resistance to fatigue and increased muscle strength. On the other hand, much higher doses of Adderall may impair cognitive control, cause rapid muscle degradation, or cause psychosis (eg Delirium and Paranoia). Adderall side effects vary greatly in individuals, but usually include insomnia, dry mouth, and loss of appetite. The risk of developing addiction is insignificant when Adderall is used as prescribed at fairly low daily doses, such as those used to treat ADHD; However, the routine use of Adderall in larger daily doses presents a significant risk of addiction because of the pronounced reinforcing effects present at higher doses. [8] Adderall’s recreational doses are generally much larger than the prescribed therapeutic doses and carry a much higher risk of serious adverse events. [Sources 2] The routine use of Adderall in larger daily doses presents a significant risk of addiction because of the pronounced reinforcement effects that are present at higher doses. [8] Adderall’s recreational doses are generally much larger than the prescribed therapeutic doses and carry a much higher risk of serious adverse events. [Sources 2] The routine use of Adderall in larger daily doses presents a significant risk of addiction because of the pronounced reinforcement effects that are present at higher doses. [8] Adderall’s recreational doses are generally much larger than the prescribed therapeutic doses and carry a much higher risk of serious adverse events. [Sources 2]

The two amphetamine enantiomers that make up Adderall (ie, levoamphetamine and dextro-amphetamine) mitigate the symptoms of ADHD and narcolepsy by increasing the activity of norepinephrine and dopamine neurotransmitters in the brain as a result of their Interactions with the receptor associated with the traces amines 1 (TAAR1) and the transporter of monoamine vesicular 2 (VMAT2) in the neurons. Dextro-amphetamine is a more potent CNS stimulant than levoamphetamine, but levoamphetamine has slightly stronger cardiovascular and peripheral effects and a longer elimination half-life (that is, it remains in the body more Long) than dextro-amphetamine. The Advoverall levoamphetamine component has been reported to improve the response to treatment in some individuals compared to dextroamphetamine alone.


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