Cyborg


cyborg (short for ” cyb ernetic org anism “) is a being with Both organic and Biomechatronic body parts. The term was coined in 1960 by Manfred Clynes and Nathan S. Kline . [1]

The term cyborg is not the same thing as bionic , biorobot or android ; it Applies to an organism That HAS restored function or enhanced abilities due to the integration of Some artificial component or technology is subsequently assembled That Some sort of feedback . [2] While they are commonly thought of as mammals , including humans, they may also conceivably be any kind of organism .

DS Halacy’s Cyborg: Evolution of the Superman in 1965 featured an introduction that spoke of a “new frontier” that was “not only space, but more profoundly the relationship between ‘inner space’ and ‘outer space’ – a bridge … between mind and matter. ” [3]

In popular culture, some cyborgs may be represented as visibly mechanical (eg, Cyborg from DC Comics, the Cybermen in the Doctor Who franchise or The Borg from Star Trek or Darth Vader from Star Wars ) or as almost indistinguishable from humans (eg, the “Human” Cylons from the re-imagining of Battlestar Galactica , etc.). Cyborgs in fiction Often play up a contempt for human over-dependence is technology, PARTICULARLY When used for war, and when to used in ways sccm That Threaten to free will . quote needed ]Cyborgs are also often portrayed with physical or mental abilities far beyond a human counterpart (military forms may have inbuilt weapons, among other things). quote needed ]

Overview

According To Some definitions of the term, the physical attachments humanity HAS with Even The Most basic technologies-have already made ’em cyborgs. [4] In a typical example, a human with an artificial cardiac pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator would be considered a cyborg, since these devices measure voltage potentials in the body, perform signal processing, and can deliver electrical stimuli, using this synthetic feedback to keep that person alive. Implants, especially cochlear implants , that combine mechanical cyborg enhancements. Some theorists who? ]Such changes include contact lenses , hearing aids , or intraocular lenses as examples of fitting humans with technology to enhance their biological capabilities. As cyborgs currently exist on the rise some theorists argue there is a need to develop new definitions of aging and for instance a bio-techno-social definition of aging has been suggested. [5]

The term is also used to address human- technology mixtures in the abstract. This includes not only commonly used pieces of technology such as computers, computers, the Internet, etc. but also artifacts that may not be popularly be considered technology; for example, pen and paper, speech and language . When it comes to these issues and places, a person becomes capable of much more than they are before. An example is a computer, which gains power by using Internet protocols to connect with other computers. Another example, which is becoming more of a bot-assisted human or assisted-bot, used to target social media with likes and shares. [6]Cybernetic technologies include highways, pipes, electrical wiring, buildings, electrical plants, libraries, and other infrastructure that we are not aware of, but which are critical parts of the cybernetics that we work within.

Bruce Sterling in his Universe of Shaper / Mechanist suggests an idea of ​​alternative cyborg called Lobster , which is made by internal implants, but by using an external shell (eg a Powered Exoskeleton ). [7] Unlike human cyborgs that appear externally while being internally synthetic (eg the Bishop type in the Alien franchise), Lobster looks inhuman externally but contains a human internally (eg Elysium , RoboCop ). The computer game Deus Ex: Invisible War prominently featured cyborgs called Omar, where “Omar” is a Russian translation of the word “Lobster” (since the Omar are of Russian origin in the game).

Origins

The concept of a man-machine has been widespread in science fiction before World War II. As early as 1843, Edgar Allan Poe described a man with extensive prostheses in the short story ” The Man That Was Used Up “. In 1911, Jean de la Hire introduced the Nyctalope , a science fiction hero who was perhaps the first literary cyborg, in The Mystery of the XV (later translated as The Nyctalope on Mars ). [8] [9] [10] Edmond Hamilton presented space with a mixture of organic and machine parts in his novel The Comet Doomin 1928. Simon Wright, Simon Wright, a Captain of the Future . He uses the term in the 1962 short story, “After a Judgment Day,” to describe the “mechanical analogs” called “Charlies,” explaining that “[c] yborgs, they had been called from the first one in the 1960s. ..cybernetic organisms. ” In the short story “No Woman Born” in 1944, CL Moore wrote of Deirdre, a dancer, whose body was burned completely and whose brain was placed in a faceless but beautiful and supple mechanical body.

The term was coined by Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline in 1960 to their conception of an enhanced human being that could survive in extraterrestrial environments:

For the exogenously extended organizational complex functioning as an integrated homeostatic system unconsciously, we propose the term ‘Cyborg’. – Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline [11]

Their concept Was the outcome of thinking about the need for an intimate relationship entre human and machines as the new frontier of space exploration Was Beginning to open up. A designer of physiological instrumentation and electronic data-processing systems, Clynes Was the chief research scientist in the Dynamic Simulation Laboratory at Rockland State Hospital in New York.

The New York Times reported on the Psychophysiological Aspects of Space Flight Symposium where Clynes and Kline first presented their paper.

A cyborg is essentially a man-machine system in which the control mechanisms of the human portion are modified externally by drugs or regulatory devices. [12]

A book titled Cyborg: Digital Destiny and Human Possibility in the Age of the Wearable Computer was published by Doubleday in 2001. [13] Some of the ideas in the book were incorporated into the 35mm motion picture film Cyberman .

Cyborg tissues in engineering

Cyborg tissues structured with carbon nanotubes and plant or fungal cells have been used in artificial tissue engineering to produce new materials for mechanical and electrical uses. The work was presented by Di Giacomo and Maresca at MRS 2013 Spring conference on Apr., 3rd, talk number SS4.04. [14]The cyborg is inexpensive, light and has unique mechanical properties. It can also be shaped in desired forms. Cells combined with MWCNTs co-precipitated as a specific aggregate of cells and nanotubes that formed a viscous material. Likewise, dried cells still have a stable matrix for the MWCNT network. When observed by optical microscopy the material resembled an artificial “tissue” composed of highly packed cells. The effect of cell drying is manifested by their “ghost cell” appearance. A more specific physical interaction between MWCNTs and cells is observed by electron microscopy suggesting that the cell wall may play a major role in establishing CNTs network and its stabilization. This novel material can be used in a wide range of electronic applications from the point of view of radio frequency sensing. In particular using Candida albicans cells with tissue sensing properties have been reported.[15]

Actual cyborgization attempts

In current prosthetic applications, the C-Leg system developed by Otto Bock HealthCare is used to replace a human limb that has been amputated because of injury or illness. The use of sensors in the artificial C-Leg aids in walking, making it easier to replicate the user’s natural, as it would be prior to amputation. [16] Prostheses like the C-Leg and the more advanced iLimb are considered by some of the first real steps towards the next generation of real-world cyborg applications. citation needed ] additional cochlear implants and magnetic implants which provide people with a sense that they would not have had more cyborgs.[citation needed]

In science , direct brain implants have been used to treat non- congenital (acquired) blindness. William Dobelle, one of the first scientists to come up with a working brain . Dobelle’s first prototype was implanted into “Jerry”, a man blinded in adulthood, in 1978. A single-array BCI containing 68 electrodes was implanted onto Jerry’s visual cortex and succeeded in producing phosphenes., the sensation of seeing light. The system included cameras mounted on glasses to send signals to the implant. Initially, the implant allowed Jerry to see shades of gray in a limited field of vision at a low frame-rate. This mainframe is designed to be simple and easy to use. [17]

In 1997, Philip Kennedy, a scientist and physician, created the world’s first human cyborg from Johnny Ray, Vietnam veteran who suffered a stroke. Ray’s body, as doctors called it, was “locked in” . Ray wanted his old life back so he agreed to Kennedy’s experiment. Kennedy embedded an implant he designed (and named “neurotrophic electrode”) near the part of Ray’s brain so that Ray would be able to have some movement back in his body. The surgery went successfully, but in 2002, Johnny Ray died. [18]

In 2002, Canadian Jens Naumann, also blinded in adulthood, became the first in a series of 16 paying patients to receive Dobelle’s second-generation implant, marking one of the earliest commercial uses of BCIs. The second generation device has a more sophisticated implementation enabling better mapping of phosphenes into coherent vision. Phosphenes are spread out across the visual field in what researchers call the starry-night effect. Immediately after his implant, Naumann was able to use his vision to restore the state of the research institute. [19]

In contrast to replacement technologies, in 2002, under the heading Project Cyborg, a British scientist, Kevin WarwickAn array of 100 electrodes in the nervous system. With this in place, Warwick is successful with a series of experiments that extend to the control of the patient. This was a form of extended sensory input. Subsequently, he investigated ultrasonic input in order to remotely detect the distance to objects. Finally, with electrodes also implanted in his wife’s nervous system, they conducted the first direct electronic communication between the nervous systems of two humans. [20] [21]

Since 2004, British artist Neil Harbisson , has had a cyborg antenna implanted in his head that allows him to extend his perception of colors beyond the visual spectrum through vibrations in his skull. [22] His antenna was included in his passport to confirm his cyborg status. [23] In 2012 at TEDGlobal , [24] Harbisson explained that he started to feel cyborg when he noticed that the software and his brain had an extra sense. [24] Neil Harbisson is the first person to be officially recognized as a cyborg by a government; he is a co-founder of the Cyborg Foundation(2004) [25]

Many other cyborgs with multifunctional microchips injected into their hands are known to exist. With the chips they are able to swipe the cards, open or unlock doors, operate such devices with a cryptocurrency , buy products, such as drinks, with a wave of the hand. [26] [27] [28] [29] [30]

bodyNET

bodyNET is an application of human-electronic interaction currently in development by Stanford University. [31] The technology is based on stretchable semiconductor materials ( Elastronic ). According to their article in Nature (Journal) , the technology is composed of smart devices, screens, and a network of sensors that can be implanted into the body, woven into the skin or worn as clothes. It has been suggested that this platform can potentially replace the smartphone in the future. [32]

Animal cyborgs

See also: Brain implant § Research and applications , Remote animal control , and § In the military

The US-based company Backyard Brains released what they refer to as “The world’s first commercially available cyborg” called the RoboRoach. The project started as a University of Michigan biomedical engineering student senior design project in 2010 [33] and have lancé Was year available beta product on 25 February 2011. [34] The RoboRoach Was officiellement released into Production via a TED talk at the TED Global conference, [35] and via the crowdsourcing website Kickstarter in 2013, [36] the kit allows students to use microstimulationto momentarily control the movements of a walking cockroach (left and right) using a bluetooth-enabled smartphone as the controller. Other groups-have Developed cyborg insects, Including Researchers at North Carolina State University [37] and UC Berkeley , [38] aim the RoboRoach Was the first kit available to the public general and Was funded by the National Institute of Mental Health as a device to serve as a teaching aid to promote an interest in neuroscience . [35] Several animal welfare organizations including the RSPCA [39] and PETA [40] has expressed concern about the ethics and welfare of animals in this project.

Cyborg proliferation in society

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In medicine

In medicine, there are two important and different types of cyborgs: the restorative and the enhanced. Restorative technologies “restore lost function, organs, and limbs”. [41] The key aspect of restorative cyborgization is the repair of broken or missing processes to revert to a healthy or average level of function. There are no enhancement to the original faculties and processes that were lost.

On the contrary, the enhanced cyborg “follows a principle, and it is the principle of optimal performance: maximizing output (the information or modifications obtained) and minimizing input (the energy expended in the process)”. [42] Thus, the enhanced cyborg intends to exceed normal processes or even gain new functions that were not originally present.

Although prostheses in general supplemented or lost part of the body of a mechanical device, bionic implants in medicine allow the body or body parts to mimic the original function more closely. Michael Chorost wrote a memoir of his experience with cochlear implants, or bionic ear, titled “Rebuilt: How Becoming Computer Part Made Me More Human.” [43] Jesse Sullivan became one of the first people to operate a full-blown limb through a nerve-muscle graft, enabling him to complex beyond motions beyond that of previous prosthetics. [44] By 2004, a fully functioning artificial heart was developed. [45]The future performance of nanotechnology and the future of biology is one of the most important features of the biological model. The ethics and desirability of “enhancement prosthetics” have been debated; their proponents include the transhumanistmovement, with its belief that new technologies can assist the human race in developing beyond its present, as well as other limitations, such as limitations on speed, strength, endurance, and intelligence. Opponents of the concept describe what they believe to be biases which propel the development and acceptance of such technologies; namely, a bias towards functionality and efficiency that can be compared to a particular view of the world. [46]

A brain-computer interface , or BCI, provides a direct path of communication from the brain to an external device, effectively creating a cyborg. Research of Invasive BCIs, which utilizes electrodes implanted directly into the gray matter of the brain, which is one of the most important causes of these diseases, such as Locked-In Syndrome . This technology could be used to help people with neurological problems. It is possible that this technology will also eventually be used with healthy people. [47]

Deep brain stimulation is a neurological surgical procedure used for therapeutic purposes. Patients diagnosed with Parkinson ‘s disease , Alzheimer’ s disease , Tourette syndrome, epilepsy, chronic headaches, and mental disorders. After the patient is unconscious, through anesthesia, brain pacemakers or electrodes, are implanted in the region of the brain where the cause of the disease is present. The region of the brain is then stimulated by bursts of electric current to disrupt the surge of seizures. Like all invasive procedures, deep brain stimulation can put the patient at a higher risk. However, there have been more improvements in recent years with deep brain stimulation than any available drug treatment. [48]

Retinal implants are another form of cyborgization in medicine. The theory behind retinal stimulation to restore vision to people suffering from retinitis pigmentosa and vision loss ganglion cells (cells which connect the eye to the brain.)

While work is still in progress, there have been major advances in the use of electronic stimulation of the retina to allow the eye to sense patterns of light. A specialized camera is worn by the subject, such as the frames of their glasses, which converts the image into a pattern of electrical stimulation. A chip located in the user’s eye would then electrically stimulate the retina with this pattern by some of the other endings that would transmit the image to the optic centers of the brain and the image would then appear to the user. This can be used as a tool for many people.

A similar process has been created to help people who have lost their vocal cords. This is a robotic sounding voice simulators. The transmission of sound would start with a muscle in the neck, where a nearby sensor would be able to pick up its electrical signals. The signals would then move to a processor that would control the timing and pitch of a voice simulator. That simulator would then be vibrating producing a multitonal sound that could be shaped into words by the mouth. [49]

An article published in Nature Materials in 2012 reported a research on “cyborg tissues” (engineered human tissue with embedded three-dimensional mesh of nanoscale wires), with possible medical implications. [50]

In 2014, researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Washington University in St. Louis had developed a device that could keep a heart beating endlessly. By using 3D printingand computer modeling this scientist developed an electronic membrane that could successfully replace pacemakers. The device utilizes a “spider-web like network of sensors and electrodes” to monitor and maintain a normal heart-rate with electrical stimuli. Unlike traditional pacemakers, which are similar to patient to patient, the elastic heart is made using high-resolution imaging technology. The first prototype was created to fit a rabbit’s heart, operating the organ in an oxygen and nutrient-rich solution. The stretchable material and circuits of the apparatus were first constructed by Professor John A. Rogersin which the electrodes are arranged in a s-shape design to allow them to expand and bend without breaking. Although the device is only currently being used as a research tool in the future, the membrane can be used in the future. [51]

In the military

See also: Animal cyborgs , and Supersoldier

Military organizations’ research has recently focused on the use of cyborg animals for the purposes of a tactical advantage. DARPA HAS icts annoncé interest in Developing “cyborg insects” to data transmitted from sensors implanted into the insect During the pupal internship. The insect is likely to be controlled by a Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) and could conceivably survey an explosive environment. [52] Similarly, DARPA is developing a neural implant to remotely control the movement of sharks . The shark ‘s unique senses would then be exploited in an explosive manner. [53]

In 2006, researchers at Cornell University invented [54] a new surgical procedure to implant artificial structures into insects during their metamorphic development. [55] [56] The first insect cyborgs, moths with integrated electronics in their thorax , were demonstrated by the same researchers. [57] [58] The initial success of the techniques has resulted in the creation of a program called Hybrid-Insect-MEMS, HI-MEMS. Its goal, selon DARPA ‘s Microsystems Technology Office , is to Develop “tightly coupled machine insect interfaces by Placing micro-mechanical systems inside the insects During the early courses of metamorphosis.” [59]

The use of neural implants has been attempted, with success, on cockroaches. Surgically applied electrodes were put on the insect, which were remotely controlled by a human. The results, although sometimes different, showed that the cockroach could be controlled by the impulses it received through the electrodes. DARPA is now funding this research because of its obvious beneficial applications to the military and other areas [60]

In 2009 at the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Micro-electronic mechanical systems (MEMS) conference in Italy , researchers demonstrated the first “wireless” flying-beetle cyborg. [61] Engineers at the University of California at Berkeley have pioneered the design of a “remote controlled beetle”, funded by the DARPA HI-MEMS Program. Filmed evidence of this can be viewed here. [62] This was followed by a demonstration of a “lift-assisted” moth-cyborg. [63]

Eventually researchers plan to develop HI-MEMS for dragonflies, bees, rats and pigeons. [64] [65] For the HI-MEMS cybernetic bug to be considered a success, it must fly 100 meters (330 ft) from a starting point, guided via computer into a controlled landing within 5 meters (16 ft) of a specific end point. Once landed, the cybernetic bug must remain in place. [64]

In sports

See also: Paralympic Games

In 2016 the first cyborg Olympics was celebrated in Zurich Switzerland. Cybathlon 2016 was the first Olympics for cyborgs and the first ever and official celebration of cyborg sports. In this event, 16 teams of people with disabilities in cyborg athletes. There have been various robotic exoskeletons, bikes and motorized wheelchairs. [66]

If we are one of these people, we have already made a difference in our understanding of the fact that we are already making a difference, that we are still making a difference. For instance, the exoskeleton race still requires its participants to sit down and to sit down, to navigate down and down stairs. Despite the simplicity of these activities, 8 of the 16 teams that participated in the event. [67]

Nonetheless, one of the main goals of this event and such simple activities is to show how to improve the performance of the prosthetic. The next Cybathlon is expected to occur in 2020

In art

Cyborg artist Moon Ribas founder of the Cyborg Foundationperforming with seismic sense implant at TED (2016)

The concept of the cyborg is often associated with science fiction. However, many artists have tried to create public awareness of cybernetic organisms; these can range from paintings to installations. Some artists who create such works are Neil Harbisson , Moon Ribas , Patricia Piccinini , Steve Mann , Orlan , Giger HR, Lee Bul , Wafa Bilal , Tim Hawkinson and Stelarc .

Stelarc is a performance artist who has visually probed and acoustically amplified his body. He uses medical instruments, prosthetics, robotics, virtual reality systems, the Internet and biotechnology to explore alternate, intimate and involuntary interfaces with the body. He has made three films of the inside of his body and has performed with a virtual hand and a virtual arm. Between 1976-1988 he completed 25 body suspension performances with hooks into the skin. For ‘Third Ear’ he has made an accessible internet accessible, making it an accessible acoustic organ for people in other places. [68] He is presently performing his avatar from his second life site. [69]

Tim Hawkinson promotes the idea that it is combined with technology to create the Cyborg. Hawkinson’s piece Emoter presented how society is now dependent on technology. [70]

Wafaa Bilal is an Iraqi-American performance artist who had a small 10 megapixel digital camera surgically implanted into the back of his head, part of a project entitled 3rd I. [71] For one year, beginning 15 December 2010, an image is captured oz per minute 24 hours a day and streamed live at www .3rdi .me and the Mathaf: Arab Museum of Modern Art. The site also displays Bilal’s location via GPS. Bilal says that the reason why he is in the back of the head is to make an “allegorical statement about the things we do not see and leave behind.” [72] As a professor at NYU, this project has raised privacy issues, and so has been asked to do so. [72]

Machines are becoming more ubiquitous in the art process itself, with computerized drawing pads replacing pen and paper, and drum machines becoming nearly as popular as human drummers. This is perhaps most notable in generative art and music . Composers such as Brian Eno have developed and used software that can build entire musical scores from a few basic mathematical parameters. [73]

Scott Draves is a generative artist whose work is a “cyborg mind”. His Electric project Shepherd’s project abstract art by combining the work of many computers and people over the internet. [74]

Artists as cyborgs

Artists have explored the term cyborg from a perspective involving imagination. Some work to make an abstract idea of ​​the human-bodily union apparent to reality in an art form utilizing varying mediums, from sculptures and drawings to digital renderings. Cyborg-based fantasy creatures cyborg artists, or may consider their artwork “cyborg”. How an artist or their work may be considered to be flexible on the interpretation of flexibility. Scholars that rely on a strict, technical description of cyborg, often going by Norbert Wiener’s cybernetic theory and Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline’s first use of the term, would argue that most cyborg artists do not qualify to be considered cyborgs. [75]Scholars considering a more flexible description of cyborgs may argue it incorporates more than cybernetics. [76] , or specialized cyborg types, that qualify different levels of cyborg at which technology influences an individual. This term can be removed from a temporary, temporary, and removable to be fully integrated and permanent. [77] Nonetheless, cyborg artists are artists. Being so, it can be expected for them to embrace the cyborg idea rather than a strict, technical representation of the term, [78] see how their work will be revolved around other purposes outside of cyborgism. [75]

In body modification

As medical technology becomes more advanced, some techniques and innovations are adopted by the body modification community. While in the strictest definition of Manfred Clynes and Nathan Kline, [79] augmented reality [80]and QR codes [81] are bridging the disconnect between technology and the body. Hypothetical technologies such as digital tattoo interfaces [82] [83] would bring about a change in the nature of the aesthetics and functionality of transhumanism .

In addition, it is quite plausible for expressing expression to manifest. Individuals may experience pre-implantation of feelings of fear and nervousness. To this end, individuals may also embody feelings of unease, particularly in a socialized setting, due to their post-operative, technologically augmented bodies, and mutual unfamiliarity with the mechanical insertion. Anxieties can be linked to notions of otherness or a cyborged identity. [84]

In popular culture

See also: Cyberpunk and List of fictional cyborgs

Cyborgs have become a well-known part of science fiction literature and other media. Although many of these characters may be technically androids , they are often referred to as cyborgs. Well-known examples from the film and television include RoboCop , The Terminator , Evangelion , United States Air Force Colonel Steve Austin in Both Cyborg and, as ACTED out by Lee Majors , The Six Million Dollar Man , Replicants from Blade Runner , Daleks and Cybermen from Doctor Who , theBorg from Star Trek , Darth Vader and General Grievous from Star Wars , Inspector Gadget , and Cylons from the 2004 Battlestar Galactica series. From comics , manga and anime are characters such as 8 Man (the inspiration for RoboCop ), Kamen Rider , Ghost in the Shell ‘s Motoko Kusanagi , Tony Stark (after his Extreme and Bleeding Edge armor ) andVictor “Cyborg” Stone . The Deus Ex videogame series deals extensively with the near-future rise of cyborgs and their corporate ownership, as does the Syndicate series. William Gibson’s Neuromancer features one of the first female cyborgs, a “Razorgirl” named Molly Millions , who has extensive cybernetic modifications and is one of the most prolific cyberpunk characters in the canon science fiction. [85]

In space

Sending humans to space is a dangerous task in which the implementation of various cyborg technologies could be used in the future for risk mitigation. [86] Stephen Hawking, a renowned physicist, stated “Life on Earth is at the ever-increasing risk of global warming, nuclear war … I think the race has no future. does not go into space. ” The difficulties associated with space can become multi-planet species. citation needed ] There are many effects of spaceflight on the human body. One major issue of space exploration is the biological need for oxygen. If this was taken out of the equation, space exploration would be revolutionized. A theory proposed by Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline is aimed at tackling this problem. The two scientists theorized that the use of an inverse fuel cell is “capable of reducing CO2 to its components with removal of the carbon and re-circulation of oxygen …” [87] could make breathing unnecessary. Another prominent issue is radiation exposure. Yearly, the average human on earth is exposed to 0.30 rem of radiation, while an astronaut aboard the International Space Station for 90 days is exposed to 9 rem. [88]To address the issue, Clynes and Kline theorized a cyborg containing a sensor that would detect radiation levels and a “osmotic pump” that would automatically inject protective pharmaceuticals into appropriate doses. Experiments injecting these protective pharmaceuticals into monkeys have shown positive results in increasing radiation resistance. [87]

Although the effects of spaceflight on our body is an important issue, the advancement of propulsion technology is just as important. With our current technology, it would take about 260 days to get to Mars. [89] A study backed by NASA offers an interesting way to tackle this issue through deep sleep, or torpor . With this technique, it would reduce astronauts with existing medical procedures. [90] So far experiments have only been achieved in patients being in torpor state for one week. Increments to allow for a shorter period of time.

In cognitive science

Theorists such as Andy Clark suggests that interactions between humans and technology result in the creation of a cyborg system. In this model, “cyborg” is defined as a biological component, which is a part of the biological component that increases the biological component. Clark argues that this broadened definition is necessary to an understanding of human cognition. He suggests that any tool which is used to offload part of a cognitive process may be considered a mechanical component of a cyborg system. Examples of this human and technology can be very low tech and simplistic, such as using a calculator to perform basic mathematical operations or pen and paper to make notes, or as high tech as using a personal computer or phone. According to Clark, These interactions between a person and a form of technology that is related to a cognitive process in a way that is analogous to the way in which technology would have the traditional concept of a cyborg increase becomes integrated with its biological host. Because Clark uses cognitive processes, Clark comes to the conclusion that we are “natural-born cyborgs”.[91]

Cyborgization in critical deaf studies

Joseph Michael Valente , describes “cyborgization” as an attempt to codify “normalization” through cochlear implantation in young deaf children. Drawing from Paddy Ladd’s work is Deaf epistemology and Donna Haraway ‘s Cyborg ontology, Valente “use [s] the concept of the cyborg as a way of agitating construction of cyborg perfection (for the deaf child That Would Be To Become fully hearing)” . He claims that cochlear implant manufacturers advertise and sell cochlear implants as a mechanical device and a uncomplicated medical “miracle cure”. Valente criticizes cochlear implantPamela J. Kincheloe discusses the representation of the cochlear implant in media and popular culture as a case study for present and future responses to human alteration and enhancement. [93]

Cyborg Foundation

In 2010, the Cyborg Foundation became the world’s first international organization dedicated to helping humans become cyborgs. [94] The foundation was created by cyborg Neil Harbisson and Moon Ribas as a response to the growing interest of cyborg. [95] The foundation is to extend human senses and abilities by creating and applying cybernetic extensions to the body, [96] to promote the use of cybernetics in cultural events and to defend cyborg rights. [97] In 2010, the foundation, based in Mataró(Barcelona), was the overall winner of the Cre @ tic Awards, organized by Tecnocampus Mataró. [98]

In 2012, Spanish film director Rafel Duran Torrent, created a short film about the Cyborg Foundation. In 2013, the film won the Grand Jury Prize at the Sundance Film Festival’s Focus Forward Filmmakers Competition and was awarded with $ 100,000 USD. [99]

The Future Scope and Regulation of Implantable Technologies

The future of implantable sensory / telemetric devices, these devices will be greatly enhanced, and will be connected to commercial, medical, and governmental networks. For example, in the medical sector, patients will be able to connect to their home computer, and thus visit virtual doctor’s offices, medical databases, and receive medical prognoses from the comfort of their own home from the data collected through their implanted telemetric devices [ 100]. However, this online network presents huge security concerns because it has been more than a few years ago that it could be more successful than it was. [100]. These fields of technology are already present in the US workforce as a firm in River Falls, Wisconsin called Three Square Market partnered with a Swedish firm called Biohacks Technology to implant RFID microchips in the hands of its employees (which are about the size of a grain of rice) that allow employees to access offices, computers, and vending machines. More than 50 of the firms 85 employees were chipped. It was confirmed that the US Food and Drug Administration approved these implantations [101]. If these devices are to be proliferated within society, then, what is the question of what is the role of monitoring, monitoring, and security of these devices? According to this case study of Three Square Market, it seems that the FDA is assuming the role in regulating and monitoring these devices.

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