Democratic transhumanism , a term coined by James Hughes in 2002, refers to the stance of transhumanists (advocates for the development and use of human enhancementtechnologies) who liberal liberal , social , and / or radical democratic political views.    
According to Hughes, the ideology “stems from the assertion that human beings will be happier when they take control of the natural and social forces that control their lives.”   The ethical foundation of democratic transhumanism rests upon rule utilitarianism and non-anthropocentric personhood theory .  Democratic transhumanist supports equal access to human enhancement technologies in order to promote social equality and to prevent technologies from furthering the divide among the socioeconomic classes . While raising objections both to right-wing and left-wing bioconservatism , and libertarian transhumanism , Hughes aims to encourage democratic transhumanists and their potential progressiveallies to unite as a new social movement and influence biopolitical public policy .  
An attempt to expand the middle ground between technorealism and techno-utopianism , democratic transhumanism can be seen as a radical form of techno-progressivism . Appearing multiple times in Hughes’ work, the term “radical” (from Latin rādīx, rādīc- , root) is used as an adjective meaning of or pertaining to the root or going to the root . His central thesis Is That emerging technologies and radical democracy can help citoyens Overcome Reviews some of the root causes of inequalities of power . 
According to Hughes, the terms techno-progressivism and democratic transhumanism both refer to the same set of Enlightenment values and principles; however, the term technoprogressive has replaced the use of the word democratic transhumanism.  
Hughes has identified 15 “left futurist” or “left techno-utopian” trends and projects that could be incorporated into democratic transhumanism:
- Assistive technology -enabled disabled people
- Biopunk science fiction and movement
- Body modification culture
- Cyborg feminism / cyberfeminism
- Feminist science fiction
- Lesbian Science Fiction , Gay Science Fiction , Bisexual Science Fiction, and Science Fiction Transgender
- Free software movement
- Post- Darwinian leftism
- Postcyberpunk science fiction
- Post-work / guaranteed minimum income movement
- Up-wing politics
- Viridian design movement
List of democratic transhumanists
These are notable individuals who have identified themselves as Hughes, as advocates of democratic transhumanism: 
- Charles Stross
- George Dvorsky
- Giulio Prisco
- Justice Of Thezier
- Ken MacLeod
- Mark Alan Walker
- Martine Rothblatt
- Rowing Naam
- Riccardo Campa
Critical theorist Dale Carrico defended democratic transhumanism from Bailey’s criticism.  However, he would later criticize democratic transhumanism himself on technoprogressivegrounds. Science journalist Ronald Bailey wrote a review of Citizen Cyborg in his online column for Reason magazine in which he offered a critique of democratic transhumanism and a defense of libertarian transhumanism .  
- Jump up^ Hughes, James (2001). “Politics of Transhumanism” . Retrieved 2007-01-26 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d Hughes, James (2002). “Democratic Transhumanism 2.0” . Retrieved 2007-01-26.
- Jump up^ Hughes, James (2003). “Better Health through Democratic Transhumanism” . Archived from the original on 2006-10-11 . Retrieved 2007-01-26 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b Hughes, James (2004). Citizen Cyborg : Why Democratic Societies Must Respond to the Redesigned Human of the Future . Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-4198-1 .
- Jump up^ James Hughes (20 July 2005). “On Democratic Transhumanism” . The Journal of Geoethical Nanotechnology . Retrieved 13 January 2015 .
- Jump up^ Hughes, James (1996). “Embracing Change with All Four Arms: A Post-Humanist Defense of Genetic Engineering” . Retrieved 2007-01-26 .
- Jump up^ Ferrando, Francesca (2013). “Posthumanism, Transhumanism, Antihumanism, Metahumanism, and New Materialisms Differences and Relationships” . Existenz . 8 (2, Fall 2013 ISSN 1932-1066). Archived from the original on 14 January 2015 . Retrieved 13 January 2015 .
- Jump up^ Carrico, Dale (2005). “Listen, Transhumanist!” . Retrieved 2007-01-27 .
- Jump up^ George Dvorsky (31 March 2012). “J. Hughes on democratic transhumanism, personhood, and AI” . Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies . Retrieved 13 January 2015 .
- Jump up^ James Hughes and Marc Roux (24 June 2009). “On Democratic Transhumanism” . Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies . Retrieved 13 January 2015 .
- Jump up^ “Cyborg Democracy” .
- Jump up^ Bailey, Ronald (2005). “Trans-Human Expressway: Why libertarians will win the future”. Retrieved 2006-02-05 .
- Jump up^ Bailey, Ronald (2009). “Transhumanism and the Limits of Democracy” . Retrieved 2009-05-01 .
- Jump up^ Carrico, Dale (2005). “Bailey on the CybDemite Threat” . Retrieved 2006-02-05 .
- Jump up^ Carrico, Dale (2009). “James Hughes Flogs for the Robot Cult” . Retrieved 2010-03-27 .