Dextroamphetamine


The Dextroamphetamine is a psychostimulant drug. It is a non- catecholamine sympathomimetic amine which is the dextrorotatory stereoisomer of the amphetamine molecule . The amphetamine molecule has another stereoisomer: levoamphetamine . Dextroamphetamine is available as a generic drug or under several brands. Dextroamphetamine is often mistakenly called amphetamine, as if it were a synonym, however, it should be remembered that in specialized listings and books the term “amphetamine” refers to a class of stimulants, and “dextroamphetamine” refers to a specific drug Within that class.

Chemistry

Dextroamphetamine is a little polar, a weak base and is lipophilic.

Pharmacodynamics
Amphetamines such as dextroamphetamine are non-catecholamine sympathomimetic amines, with central nervous system and sympathetic stimulating activity and comparable to methamphetamine . Peripheral actions include elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure, weak bronchodilation, and a respiratory stimulating action. There is no specific evidence that clearly establishes the mechanism by which amphetamines produce mental and behavioral effects in children, and there is no conclusive evidence as to how these effects relate to the condition of the central nervous system.

Uses
Dextroamphetamine was approved for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy in children and adults, and to help reduce weight. In experiments with rhesus monkeys, the drug is one of the most effective appetite suppressants. It has been used to help epileptics. The drug can be administered in combination with scopolamine as an anti-seasickness medicine, astronauts have used this combination during missions in outer space and consider it effective. 1

Dextroamphetamine has been found to be more effective than standard antidepressants to relieve depression among HIV patients and can also increase their energy. The drug has helped to restore physical vigor and positive mental attitude in institutionalized older people, so that older people, who had been unable to take care of themselves, were able to return home. Experimenters in the 1970s and 1990s found that the drug could speed up the work pace without multiplying errors in performing tasks. It should be noted that laboratory results can not be extrapolated to workplaces in general. Dextroamphetamine can help people maintain a satisfactory performance at work, While they are deprived of sleep. 2

Uses of low profile
Use in athletics . Sports performance may be improved by dextroamphetamine, but amphetamine class substances are generally banned by regulatory sports authorities.
Many truck drivers were customers of amphetamine derivatives while driving overnight to stay alert.
In the Persian Gulf War of 1991, US airmen used the drug. Some pilots considered the drug a fundamental substance for the superior functioning of their responsibilities. 3 An external evaluation concluded that improved efficiency and safety when drivers were under the influence of drugs. 4

Mechanism of action
The exact mechanism of action is not known. Dextroamphetamine stimulates noradrenaline release from central adrenergic receptors. At higher doses, the release of dopamine from the mesocorticolimbic system and the nigrostriatal dopamine systems by inversion of monoamine transporters occurs . Dextroamphetamine may also act as a direct agonist at the 5-HT receptor center and may inhibit monoamine oxidase (MAO). At the periphery, amphetamines are believed to cause the release of noradrenaline by acting on adrenergic nerve endings and alpha and beta receptors. Modulation of the serotonergic pathways may contribute to the tranquilizing effect. 5

Disadvantages
In tests with healthy volunteers it was found that taking enough dextroamphetamine to produce euphoria was also sufficient to produce mania. 6 The drug can cause a stroke and usually should be avoided if patients have heart disease, hardening of the arteries, high blood pressure, glaucoma, hyperthyroidism, anxiety, and a history of current or past abuse of drugs. Some heart problems have been attributed to several years of drug abuse. Brain damage has also been observed.

Factors of abuse
Researchers found that abusers may gain tolerance to the psychological effects of dextroamphetamine while the effects on blood pressure remain strong. Therefore, increasing the dosage to maintain a high psychic level can pose as much danger to an accustomed user as to someone unaccustomed to the drug.

Use in pregnancy and lactation
Dextroamphetamine, like any amphetamine, is excreted in human milk. Mothers taking dextroamphetamine should be advised to abstain from breastfeeding. As with many drugs, the effects on fetal development are unknown. A case of a severe birth defect was reported in a woman who used dextroamphetamine during the first trimester of the pregnancy, however, the significance of that instance is uncertain because she also used lovastatin (a cholesterol-lowering drug in People at serious risk of heart attack), and it is known that lovastatin itself is considered to be highly dangerous for fetal development. A statistical association has been reported between the maternal use of dextroamphetamine and cardiac defects in infants. Dextroamphetamine has been prescribed for use in pregnancy without apparent adverse effects in children, but is currently considered potentially dangerous. The possible consequences deserve a thorough discussion between the doctor and the pregnant patient.


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