Memory improvement


Improving memory is the act of improving one’s memory.

Medical research on memory deficits and age-related memory loss resulted in new explanations and treatment techniques to improve memory, including diet, exercise, stress management , Cognitive therapy and pharmaceutical drugs. Neuroimaging and cognitive neuroscience have provided neurobiological evidence supporting holistic means in which memory can be improved.

Factors of memory function
Neuro plasticity
Neuroplastic is the mechanism by which the brain encodes experience, learns new behaviors and reappears the behavior lost if the brain has been damaged.

London Taxicab

Experience-dependent neuroplasticity suggests that the brain changes in response to what it experiences. London taxi drivers are an excellent example of this dynamic. They take an in-depth training of 2 to 4 years, learn and memorize the names of the streets, the layout of the streets in the city and the fastest routes in the city. After studying taxi drivers in London for some time, it was found that the volume of gray matter increased over time in the posterior hippocampus, an area of ​​the brain involved in memory. Longer taxi drivers have traveled the streets of London, the greater the volume of posterior hippocampal gray matter. This suggests a correlation between a healthy person’s mental training or physical exercise and the ability of their brains to handle a larger volume and more complex information. It should be noted, however, that the increase in volume has actually led to a reduction in the capacity of taxi drivers to acquire new visuo-spatial information. [2]

Stress
Research revealed that chronic and acute stress had adverse effects on memory processing systems. Therefore, it is important to find mechanisms in which to reduce the amount of stress in their lives when seeking to improve memory.

Chronic stress has shown negative impacts on the brain, especially in memory processing systems. [3] The hippocampus is vulnerable to repeated stress due to stress hormones of adrenal steroids. [4] Elevated glucocorticoids, a class of adrenal steroid hormones, results in an increase in cortisol, a well – known stress – response hormone in the brain [5] and glucocorticoids are known to affect memory. [6] Prolonged levels of high cortisol, as seen in chronic stress, have shown a decrease in hippocampal volume as well as deficits in memory dependent on the hippocampus, as we have seen In a statement declared defective, The performance of episodic, spatial and contextual memory. [6] Long-term high chronic cortisol levels affect the degree of atrophy in the hippocampus, resulting in a 14% reduction in hippocampal volume and poor hippocampus memory compared to elderly subjects with Decreased or moderate cortisol levels. An example can be found in London taxi drivers because the anterior hypocampus was supposed to decrease in volume due to high levels of stress cortisol. [2] [nb 1] Long-term high levels of cortisol affect the degree of atrophy of the hippocampus, resulting in a 14% reduction in the hippocampus volume and a poor memory of the hippocampus relative to the subjects With decreased or moderate levels of cortisol. [6] [7] [8] An example can be found in London taxi drivers, Because the anterior hypocampus was supposed to decrease in volume due to high levels of stress cortisol. [2] [nb 1] Long-term high levels of cortisol affect the degree of atrophy of the hippocampus, resulting in a 14% reduction in the hippocampus volume and a poor memory of the hippocampus relative to the subjects With decreased or moderate levels of cortisol. An example can be found in London taxi drivers because the anterior hypocampus was supposed to decrease in volume due to high levels of stress cortisol. An example can be found in London taxi drivers because the anterior hypocampus was supposed to decrease in volume due to high cortisol levels of stress. [2] [1] [6] [7] An example can be found in London taxi drivers because the anterior hypocampus was supposed to decrease in volume due to high cortisol levels of stress. [2] [1] [6] [7]
[2] [nb 1] Acute stress, a more common form of stress, leads to the release of adrenal steroids, resulting in short-term memory problems and working memory such as selective attention, Consolidation of memory, as well as long-term potentiation. [9] [10] The human brain has limited memory capacity in the short term to process information, resulting in constant competition between stimuli to transform. Cognitive control processes, such as selective attention, reduce this competition by prioritizing distributed caregiving resources. Attention is crucial in memory processing and improves the encoding and strength of memory traces. [11] It is therefore important to selectively review relevant information and ignore irrelevant information in order to have the greatest success.
[12] Animal and human studies provide evidence that sharp stress affects short-term memory and working memory and aggravates neuropsychiatric disorders involved in short-term memory and work Such as depression and schizophrenia. [3] Animal studies with rats have also shown that exposure to acute stress reduces the survival of neurons in the hippocampus. [11] It is therefore important to selectively review relevant information and ignore irrelevant information in order to have the greatest success. [12] Animal and human studies provide evidence that sharp stress affects short-term memory and working memory and aggravates neuropsychiatric disorders involved in short-term memory and work Such as depression and schizophrenia. [3] Animal studies with rats have also shown that exposure to acute stress reduces the survival of neurons in the hippocampus. [11] It is therefore important to selectively review relevant information and ignore irrelevant information in order to have the greatest success. [12] Animal and human studies provide evidence that sharp stress affects short-term memory and working memory and aggravates neuropsychiatric disorders involved in short-term memory and work Such as depression and schizophrenia. [3] Animal studies with rats have also shown that exposure to acute stress reduces the survival of neurons in the hippocampus. [12] Animal and human studies provide evidence that sharp stress affects short-term memory and working memory and aggravates neuropsychiatric disorders involved in short-term memory and work Such as depression and schizophrenia. [3] Animal studies with rats have also shown that exposure to acute stress reduces the survival of neurons in the hippocampus. [12] Animal and human studies provide evidence that sharp stress affects short-term memory and working memory and aggravates neuropsychiatric disorders involved in short-term memory and work Such as depression and schizophrenia. [3] Animal studies with rats have also shown that exposure to acute stress reduces the survival of neurons in the hippocampus.

One of the roles of the central nervous system (CNS) is to help adapt to stressful environments. [3] It has been suggested that acute stress can have a protective function for people more vulnerable to their own stress hormones. Some individuals, for example, are not able to diminish or habituate their elevation of cortisol, which plays a major role in atrophy of the hippocampus. [14] This over-response of the central nervous system to stress thus leads to chronic stress effects that are unsuited to memory processing systems.

strategies

Cognitive Formation
Discovering that the brain can change due to experience has resulted in the development of cognitive training. Cognitive training improves cognitive functioning, which can increase working memory capacity and improve cognitive skills and functions in clinical populations with work memory impairments. [15] Cognitive training can focus on attention, timeliness, neurofeedback, dual task and perceptual training. [15]

Cognitive training has improved cognitive abilities for up to five years. In an experiment, the objective was to prove that cognitive training would increase cognitive functions in the elderly by using three types of training (memory, reasoning and processing speed). It was found that improvements in cognitive capacity were not only maintained over time but had a positive transfer effect on daily functioning. Therefore, these results indicate that each type of cognitive training can produce immediate and lasting improvements in each type of cognitive ability, suggesting that training can be beneficial in improving memory. [16]

Cognitive training in areas other than memory has actually been seen to generalize and transfer to memory systems. For example, the American Geriatrics Society ‘s 2009 Improved Memory with Adaptive Cognitive Adaptive Training Focusing on Plasticity (IMPACT) study demonstrated that cognitive training designed to improve the accuracy and speed of the hearing system showed improvements In the memory and functioning of the attention system as well as auditory functioning. [17]

Human brain

Two methods of cognitive training are:

Strategic training is used to help individuals recall increasing amounts of information of a particular type. It involves teaching effective approaches to coding, maintaining and / or recalling working memory. The main objective of strategic training is to increase performance in tasks requiring the preservation of information. The studies strongly support the claim that the amount of information recalled can be increased by repeating aloud, telling a story with stimuli or using images to bring out the stimuli. Strategic training has been used in children with Down syndrome and also in older adults.
[15] Basic training involves repeating demanding work memory tasks. Some basic training programs involve a combination of several tasks with widely varied types of stimulus. The diversity of exercises increases the chances that one of the training tasks, or a combination of training tasks, will produce the desired training gains. An objective of cognitive training is to affect the ease and success of cognitive performance in everyday life. Basic training can reduce the symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and improve the quality of life involving multiple sclerosis patients, schizophrenia and those who have suffered a stroke. Some basic training programs involve a combination of several tasks with widely varied types of stimulus. The diversity of exercises increases the chances that one of the training tasks, or a combination of training tasks, will produce the desired training gains. An objective of cognitive training is to affect the ease and success of cognitive performance in everyday life. Basic training can reduce the symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and improve the quality of life involving multiple sclerosis patients, schizophrenia and those who have suffered a stroke. Some basic training programs involve a combination of several tasks with widely varied types of stimulus. The diversity of exercises increases the chances that one of the training tasks, or a combination of training tasks, will produce the desired training gains. An objective of cognitive training is to affect the ease and success of cognitive performance in everyday life. Basic training can reduce the symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and improve the quality of life involving multiple sclerosis patients, schizophrenia and those who have suffered a stroke. The diversity of exercises increases the chances that one of the training tasks, or a combination of training tasks, will produce the desired training gains. An objective of cognitive training is to affect the ease and success of cognitive performance in everyday life. Basic training can reduce the symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and improve the quality of life involving multiple sclerosis patients, schizophrenia and those who have suffered a stroke. The diversity of exercises increases the chances that one of the training tasks, or a combination of training tasks, will produce the desired training gains. An objective of cognitive training is to affect the ease and success of cognitive performance in everyday life. Basic training can reduce the symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and improve the quality of life involving multiple sclerosis patients, schizophrenia and those who have suffered a stroke. An objective of cognitive training is to affect the ease and success of cognitive performance in everyday life. Basic training can reduce the symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and improve the quality of life involving multiple sclerosis patients, schizophrenia and those who have suffered a stroke. An objective of cognitive training is to affect the ease and success of cognitive performance in everyday life. Basic training can reduce the symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and improve the quality of life involving multiple sclerosis patients, schizophrenia and those who have suffered a stroke.

The manner in which a training study is conducted could affect the results or the outlook of the results. Wait / effort effects occur when the experimenter unconsciously influences the participants to achieve a desired outcome. One form of waiting bias concerns the effects of placebo, which is the belief that training should have a positive influence on cognition. A control group can help eliminate this bias because this group does not expect to receive training. Researchers sometimes generalize their results, which can be misleading and incorrect. An example is to generalize the results of a single task and to interpret the observed improvements as a widely defined cognitive ability. The study may lead to inconsistency if there is a variety of comparison groups used in training in working memory, which is impacted by: training and evaluation schedule, evaluation conditions, training establishment and Selection of the control group. [15]

Psychopharmacology
Psychopharmacology is the scientific study of the actions of drugs and their effects on mood, sensation, thought and behavior.

Evidence that aspects of memory can be enhanced by action on selective neurotransmitter systems, such as the cholinergic system that releases acetylcholine, has potential therapeutic benefits for patients with cognitive impairment. [18]

The results of the studies have shown that acute nicotine administration can improve cognitive performance (especially tasks requiring attention), short-term episodic memory, and potential performance of memory tasks. Chronic low-dose nicotine use in animals has increased the number of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) and improved performance on learning and memory tasks. [19]

The short-term treatment of nicotine, using nicotine skin patches, has shown that cognitive performance can be improved in various groups such as normal non-smoking adults, patients with Alzheimer’s, schizophrenics and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. [20] Similarly, data suggest that smoking improves visuoespacial memory memory disorders in schizophrenic patients, which explains the high rate of smoking in people with schizophrenia. [21]

Diet

Healthy Fruits and Vegetables
It appears that glucose consumption can have a positive impact on memory performance, but not in young adults. [22]

Stress management

Meditation: Attending a Flame
Meditation, a form of mental training to attract attention [12], has shown that it increases control over the distribution of brain resources, enhancing attention and self-regulation. [13] The changes are potentially enduring because meditation can have the ability to strengthen neural circuits as selective attention processes improve. [23] Meditation can also improve limited cognitive ability, which affects the way stimuli are treated. [12]

The practice of meditation has also been associated with physical changes in the structure of the brain. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of meditation practitioners of the Buddhist intuition who practiced attention meditation had an increase in the cortical thickness and volume of the hippocampus compared to the control group. [24] This research provides structural evidence that the practice of meditation favors neural plasticity and cortical plasticity dependent on experience. [25]

Exercise
Main article: Neurobiological effects of physical exercise § Long-term effects
In studies on humans and animals, exercise has been shown to improve cognitive performance on coding and recovery tasks. Morris water maze studies and rodent radial arm maze studies revealed that, compared to sedentary animals, mice exercised had improved performance across the labyrinth and displayed improved memory for the location of An exhaust platform. [26] Similarly, human studies have shown that cognitive performance is enhanced due to physiological excitement, which has accelerated mental processes and improved memory storage and retrieval. [27] It has been found that the interventions of exercises in progress favorably influence the memory processes in the elderly [28] and children. [29]

Exercise was found to regulate positive hippocampal neurogenesis, [30] which is considered an explanation of the positive influence of physical activities on memory performance. Learning dependent on the hippocampus, for example, can promote the survival of newborn neurons that can serve as a basis for the formation of new memories. [31] Exercise has been demonstrated to increase brain – derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein level in rats, with high levels of BDNF corresponding to enhanced performance on memory tasks. The data also suggest that the availability of BDNF at the beginning of cognitive tests is related to the overall acquisition of a new cognitive task and may be important in determining the strength of the recall in memory tasks.

Mental Exercise

Aristotle wrote a treatise on memory: De memoria et reminiscentia. To improve recollection, he recommended that systematic research be carried out and that the practice be useful. He suggested grouping the elements into three, then focusing on the core of each triad (group of three). [32]

The music game has recently attracted attention as a possible way to promote cerebral plasticity. Promising results have been found suggesting that learning music can improve various aspects of memory. For example, children who participated in a year of instrumental music training demonstrated improved verbal memory, while no such improvement was demonstrated in children who interrupted music training. [33] Similarly, adults with no previous musical training who participated in individualized piano lessons showed a significant improvement in performance on tasks aimed at testing attention and working memory in relation to one Healthy control group. [34] Evidence suggests that improvements in verbal, professional and long-term memory associated with musical training is the result of improved mechanisms of verbal repetition that musicians possess.


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