Memory improvement


Improving memory is the act of improving one’s memory.

Medical research on memory deficits and age-related memory loss resulted in new explanations and treatment techniques to improve memory, including diet, exercise, stress management , Cognitive therapy and pharmaceutical drugs. Neuroimaging and cognitive neuroscience have provided neurobiological evidence supporting holistic means in which memory can be improved.

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Dextroamphetamine


The Dextroamphetamine is a psychostimulant drug. It is a non- catecholamine sympathomimetic amine which is the dextrorotatory stereoisomer of the amphetamine molecule . The amphetamine molecule has another stereoisomer: levoamphetamine . Dextroamphetamine is available as a generic drug or under several brands. Dextroamphetamine is often mistakenly called amphetamine, as if it were a synonym, however, it should be remembered that in specialized listings and books the term “amphetamine” refers to a class of stimulants, and “dextroamphetamine” refers to a specific drug Within that class. Continue Reading

Altinicline

Altinicline (SIB-1508Y, SIB-1765F) is a drug that acts as an agonist in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with high selectivity for the α4β2 subtype. [2] It stimulates the release of dopamine and acetylcholine in the brain in both rodent and primate models, [3] and progressed to Phase II clinical trials for Parkinson’s disease , [4] where “non-antiparkinsonian or cognition enhancement, the effects have been demonstrated,” although its current state is unclear.

Unifiram

Unifiram is an ampakine drug that acts as a positive allosteric modulator of the AMPA receptor , 1 which has been shown to have nootropic effects in animals. 2 3 A series of related compounds are known, one being the sunifiram (DM-235). 4 5 6 This drug has two enantiomers , with (R) – (+) – unifiram acting as more active isomer.

Adderall

Adderall is a combined drug containing salts of the two enantiomers of amphetamine, a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine class. Adderall is used in the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. It is also used as an athletic performance enhancer and cognitive enhancer, and recreationally as an aphrodisiac and euphoric. The active ingredients of Adderall are 25% levoamphetamine salts (the levogyre or the “left” enantiomer) and 75% dextroamphetamine salts (the dextrogyre or “right” enantiomer).

Adderall is generally well tolerated and effective in treating the symptoms of ADHD and narcolepsy. At therapeutic doses, Adderall causes emotional and cognitive effects such as euphoria, change in sexual desire, increased arousal, and improved cognitive control. At these doses, it induces physical effects such as decreased reaction time, resistance to fatigue and increased muscle strength. On the other hand, much higher doses of Adderall may impair cognitive control, cause rapid muscle degradation, or cause psychosis (eg Delirium and Paranoia). Adderall side effects vary greatly in individuals, but usually include insomnia, dry mouth, and loss of appetite. The risk of developing addiction is insignificant when Adderall is used as prescribed at fairly low daily doses, such as those used to treat ADHD; However, the routine use of Adderall in larger daily doses presents a significant risk of addiction because of the pronounced reinforcing effects present at higher doses. [8] Adderall’s recreational doses are generally much larger than the prescribed therapeutic doses and carry a much higher risk of serious adverse events. [Sources 2] The routine use of Adderall in larger daily doses presents a significant risk of addiction because of the pronounced reinforcement effects that are present at higher doses. [8] Adderall’s recreational doses are generally much larger than the prescribed therapeutic doses and carry a much higher risk of serious adverse events. [Sources 2] The routine use of Adderall in larger daily doses presents a significant risk of addiction because of the pronounced reinforcement effects that are present at higher doses. [8] Adderall’s recreational doses are generally much larger than the prescribed therapeutic doses and carry a much higher risk of serious adverse events. [Sources 2]

The two amphetamine enantiomers that make up Adderall (ie, levoamphetamine and dextro-amphetamine) mitigate the symptoms of ADHD and narcolepsy by increasing the activity of norepinephrine and dopamine neurotransmitters in the brain as a result of their Interactions with the receptor associated with the traces amines 1 (TAAR1) and the transporter of monoamine vesicular 2 (VMAT2) in the neurons. Dextro-amphetamine is a more potent CNS stimulant than levoamphetamine, but levoamphetamine has slightly stronger cardiovascular and peripheral effects and a longer elimination half-life (that is, it remains in the body more Long) than dextro-amphetamine. The Advoverall levoamphetamine component has been reported to improve the response to treatment in some individuals compared to dextroamphetamine alone.

NNI-351

NNI-351 is an active oral inhibitor of DYRK1A and a neurogenesis enhancer that is being developed by NeuroNascent, Inc. for the treatment of Down syndrome, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). [1] [2] Beginning in 2017, it is in the preclinical development phase and has not yet progressed in human clinical trials

CREB in cognition

The cell transcription factor CREB (cAMP response element binding protein) [1] helps in the learning and stabilization and recovery of long-term memories based on fear. This is mainly due to its expression in the hippocampus and amygdala. Studies that support the role of CREB in cognition include those that eliminate the gene, reduce expression, or overexpress. Continue Reading

what are nootropic

The nootropics (from nous mind and tropos bend) or nootropics are drugs , the drugs , plants and various substances having an action of modulation of physiology and psychology involving cognitive increase and that no or relatively little effect Health hazards at standard doses. Nootropics are promoted in transhumanism as a general means of improving living conditions, or for specific purposes, such as increased motivation.

Since the year 2000, more substances (eg, rivastigmine , the galantamine or aniracetam) are used to delay the onset of some cognitive symptoms in Alzheimer’s disease.

Nootropes are drugs extracted from different sources such as the Ginkgo biloba plant . Their effectiveness in diseases such as Alzheimer ‘s disease is not yet proven.

Environmental enrichment

The environmental enrichment studies how the brain is affected by stimulation of its centers of perception caused by everything that surrounds (including opportunities for social interaction). The brain , in a richer and more stimulating environment, has a greater number of synapses , and the dendrites in which they reside are more complex. This effect is all the more important during the neurodevelopment phase , but still persists to a lesser degree during adulthood. This increase in synapses also generates a greater synaptic activity, which also increases the size and number of cells glial actresses of nerve impulses . The vascularization also increases and thus provides neurons and glial cells with more energy. The neuropile (neurons, glial cells and capillaries combined) thus has more expansion and makes the cerebral cortex thicker. It can also create more neurons (in rodents at least). The neuropile (neurons, glial cells and capillaries combined) thus has more expansion and makes the cerebral cortex thicker. It can also create more neurons (in rodents at least). The neuropile (neurons, glial cells and capillaries combined) thus has more expansion and makes the cerebral cortex thicker. It can also create more neurons (in rodents at least). Continue Reading

Basmisanil

Basmisanil (INN) (developmental code names RG-1662, RO5186582) is a highly selective inverse agonist / negative allosteric modulator of GABA A receptors containing an α 5 subunit developed by Roche for the treatment of cognitive impairments associated with the syndrome Of Down. In August 2015, these are Phase II clinical trials for this indication.