Democratic transhumanism

Democratic transhumanism , a term coined by James Hughes in 2002, refers to the stance of transhumanists (advocates for the development and use of human enhancementtechnologies) who liberal liberal , social , and / or radical democratic political views. [1] [2] [3] [4]


According to Hughes, the ideology “stems from the assertion that human beings will be happier when they take control of the natural and social forces that control their lives.” [2] [5] The ethical foundation of democratic transhumanism rests upon rule utilitarianism and non-anthropocentric personhood theory . [6] Democratic transhumanist supports equal access to human enhancement technologies in order to promote social equality and to prevent technologies from furthering the divide among the socioeconomic classes . [7]While raising objections both to right-wing and left-wing bioconservatism , and libertarian transhumanism , Hughes aims to encourage democratic transhumanists and their potential progressiveallies to unite as a new social movement and influence biopolitical public policy . [2] [4]

An attempt to expand the middle ground between technorealism and techno-utopianism , democratic transhumanism can be seen as a radical form of techno-progressivism . [8]Appearing multiple times in Hughes’ work, the term “radical” (from Latin rādīx, rādīc- , root) is used as an adjective meaning of or pertaining to the root or going to the root . His central thesis Is That emerging technologies and radical democracy can help citoyens Overcome Reviews some of the root causes of inequalities of power . [2]

According to Hughes, the terms techno-progressivism and democratic transhumanism both refer to the same set of Enlightenment values ​​and principles; however, the term technoprogressive has replaced the use of the word democratic transhumanism. [9] [10]


Hughes has identified 15 “left futurist” or “left techno-utopian” trends and projects that could be incorporated into democratic transhumanism:

  • Afrofuturism
  • Assistive technology -enabled disabled people
  • Biopunk science fiction and movement
  • Body modification culture
  • Cyborg feminism / cyberfeminism
  • Feminist science fiction
  • Lesbian Science Fiction , Gay Science Fiction , Bisexual Science Fiction, and Science Fiction Transgender
  • Nanosocialism
  • Free software movement
  • Post- Darwinian leftism
  • Postcyberpunk science fiction
  • Post-work / guaranteed minimum income movement
  • Technogaianism
  • Up-wing politics
  • Viridian design movement

List of democratic transhumanists

These are notable individuals who have identified themselves as Hughes, as advocates of democratic transhumanism: [11]

  • Charles Stross
  • George Dvorsky
  • Giulio Prisco
  • Justice Of Thezier
  • Ken MacLeod
  • Mark Alan Walker
  • Martine Rothblatt
  • Rowing Naam
  • Riccardo Campa


Critical theorist Dale Carrico defended democratic transhumanism from Bailey’s criticism. [14] However, he would later criticize democratic transhumanism himself on technoprogressivegrounds. [15]Science journalist Ronald Bailey wrote a review of Citizen Cyborg in his online column for Reason magazine in which he offered a critique of democratic transhumanism and a defense of libertarian transhumanism . [12] [13]


  1. Jump up^ Hughes, James (2001). “Politics of Transhumanism” . Retrieved 2007-01-26 .
  2. ^ Jump up to:d Hughes, James (2002). “Democratic Transhumanism 2.0” . Retrieved 2007-01-26.
  3. Jump up^ Hughes, James (2003). “Better Health through Democratic Transhumanism” . Archived from the original on 2006-10-11 . Retrieved 2007-01-26 .
  4. ^ Jump up to:b Hughes, James (2004). Citizen Cyborg : Why Democratic Societies Must Respond to the Redesigned Human of the Future . Westview Press. ISBN  0-8133-4198-1 .
  5. Jump up^ James Hughes (20 July 2005). “On Democratic Transhumanism” . The Journal of Geoethical Nanotechnology . Retrieved 13 January 2015 .
  6. Jump up^ Hughes, James (1996). “Embracing Change with All Four Arms: A Post-Humanist Defense of Genetic Engineering” . Retrieved 2007-01-26 .
  7. Jump up^ Ferrando, Francesca (2013). “Posthumanism, Transhumanism, Antihumanism, Metahumanism, and New Materialisms Differences and Relationships” . Existenz . 8 (2, Fall 2013 ISSN 1932-1066). Archived from the original on 14 January 2015 . Retrieved 13 January 2015 .
  8. Jump up^ Carrico, Dale (2005). “Listen, Transhumanist!” . Retrieved 2007-01-27 .
  9. Jump up^ George Dvorsky (31 March 2012). “J. Hughes on democratic transhumanism, personhood, and AI” . Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies . Retrieved 13 January 2015 .
  10. Jump up^ James Hughes and Marc Roux (24 June 2009). “On Democratic Transhumanism” . Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies . Retrieved 13 January 2015 .
  11. Jump up^ “Cyborg Democracy” .
  12. Jump up^ Bailey, Ronald (2005). “Trans-Human Expressway: Why libertarians will win the future”. Retrieved 2006-02-05 .
  13. Jump up^ Bailey, Ronald (2009). “Transhumanism and the Limits of Democracy” . Retrieved 2009-05-01 .
  14. Jump up^ Carrico, Dale (2005). “Bailey on the CybDemite Threat” . Retrieved 2006-02-05 .
  15. Jump up^ Carrico, Dale (2009). “James Hughes Flogs for the Robot Cult” . Retrieved 2010-03-27 .

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *