Directed evolution (transhumanism)

The term directed evolution is used in the transhumanist community to refer to the idea of ​​applying the principles of directed evolution and experimental evolution to the control of human evolution. [1] In this sense, it is distinct from the use of the term in biochemistry , which refers to the evolution of proteins and RNA . Maxwell J. Melhmanh has described the evolution of humans in the Holy Grail of Transhumanism . [1] Oxford philosopher Julian Savulescu wrote that:

Humanity and Survival for the Survival of Survival and Survival: A Survival for Survival and Survival: A Survival and Survival of Human Factors. Power has been transferred from nature to science.

-  Julian Savulescu [2]

According to UCLA biophysicist Gregory Stock :

Humanity is leaving its childhood and moving into its teens as its powers infuse into realms hitherto beyond our reach.

-  Gregory Stock [3]

Riccardo Campa , from the Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies , wrote that “self-directed evolution” can be combined with many different political, philosophical, and religious views. [4]

Criticism of the term

Andrew Askland, from the Sandra Day O’Connor College of Law claims That referring to transhumanism as directed evolution is problematic Because Evolution is ateleological and transhumanism is teleological . [5]

Participant evolution

Participant Evolution is an alternative term That Refers to the process of damaged deliberately redesigning the human body and brain using technological means clustering, Rather than through the natural processes of mutationand natural selection , with the goal of Removing “biological limitations” and human enhancement. [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] The idea of ​​a participant evolution was first put forward by Manfred Clynes and Nathan S. Klinein the 1960s in their article Cyborgs and Space , [20] where they argued that the human species was already evolving. Science fiction writers have speculated what the next stage of such a participant will evolve.

Whilst Clynes and Kline saw participant in the process of creating cyborgs , the idea has been adopted that the transhumanists should be of the opinion that they should have the choice of using human enhancement technologies on themselves and their children, to progressively become transhuman and ultimately posthuman , as part of a voluntary regimen of participant evolution.

See also

  • 2001: A Space Odyssey
  • Designer baby
  • Eugenics
  • Liberal eugenics
  • Genome editing
  • Genome engineering
  • Morphological freedom
  • Human genetic engineering
  • Posthumanism
  • Reprogenetics


  1. ^ Jump up to:b Maxwell Mehlman. “Will Directed Evolution Destroy Humanity, and If So, What Can We Do About It?” (PDF) . 3 St. Louis UJ Health L. & Pol’y 93, 96-97 (2009) Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-12-10.
  2. Jump up^ Savulescu, Julian (2003). “Human-Animal Transgenesis and Chimeras Might Be an Expression of Our Humanity”. Journal of Bioethics . 3 : 22-24.
  3. Jump up^ Stock, Gregory (2005). “Germinal Choice Technology and the Human Future”. Ethics L. & Moral Phil. Reprod. Biomedicine . 10 : 27-34.
  4. Jump up^ Campa, Riccardo. “Toward a transhumanist politics” . Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies . Retrieved 26 February 2015 .
  5. Jump up^ Askland, Andrew (2011). “The Misnomer of Transhumanism as Directed Evolution” (PDF) . International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Society . 9 (1): 71-78. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-02-27.
  6. Jump up^ Sharon, Tamar (11 October 2013). “Human Nature in an Age of Biotechnology: The Case for Mediated Posthumanism” . Springer Science & Business Media – via Google Books.
  7. Jump up^ Clarke, Adele E .; Mamo, Laura; Fosket, Jennifer Ruth; Fishman, Jennifer R .; Shim, Janet K. (January 1, 2009). “Biomedicalization: Technoscience, Health, and Illness in the US” . Duke University Press – via Google Books.
  8. Jump up^ Kline, Ronald R. (25 June 2015). “The Cybernetics Moment: Or Why We Call Our Age the Information Age” . JHU Press – via Google Books.
  9. Jump up^ Gurd, Sean Alexander (1 January 2005). “Iphigenias at Aulis: Textual Multiplicity, Radical Philology” . Cornell University Press – via Google Books.
  10. Jump up^ Orr, Jackie (8 February 2006). “Panic Diaries: A Genealogy of Panic Disorder” . Duke University Press – via Google Books.
  11. Jump up^ Mazan, Tobiasz (17 April 2015). “Transcend the Flesh: Transhumanism debate” . Tobiasz Mazan – via Google Books.
  12. Jump up^ Blake, Charlie; Molloy, Claire; Shakespeare, Steven (March 15, 2012). “Beyond Human: From Animality to Transhumanism” . A & C Black – via Google Books.
  13. Jump up^ Riha, Daniel (28 December 2016). “Frontiers of Cyberspace” . Rodopi – via Google Books.
  14. Jump up^ Collard, Andree; Contrucci, Joyce (1 January 1989). “Rape of the Wild: Man’s Violence Against Animals and the Earth” . Indiana University Press – via Google Books.
  15. Jump up^ Wolf, Milton T. (1 January 1997). “Shaw and Science Fiction” . Penn State Press – via Google Books.
  16. Jump up^ “Drugs, Space, and Cybernetics: Evolution to Cyborgs” (PDF) . 1961. Archived from the original on 2016-02-08.
  17. Jump up^ “Manfred Clynes and the Cyborg” . by Chris Hables Gray . Archived from the original on April 19, 2005 . Retrieved June 12, 2005 . which in turn quotes an interview with Manfred E. Clynes inGray, Mentor, and Figueroa-Sarriera (1995). The Cyborg Handbook . New York: Routledge . pages 29-34, which in turn quotesClynes, Manfred E. & Nathan S. Kline (1960). “Cyborgs and Space” (PDF) . Astronautics . September: 26-27 and 74-75. 


  18. Jump up^ “Cyborg Systems” . ISTF Brochures . Retrieved June 12, 2005 .
  19. Jump up^ “Frequently Asked Questions about Transhumanism” . Futurist Transhuman Think Tank . Archived from the original on 2003-02-23 . Retrieved June 12, 2005 .
  20. Jump up^ Clynes, Manfred E. & Nathan S. Kline (1960). “Cyborgs and Space”(PDF) . Astronautics . September.

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