Germinal choice technology

Germinal choice technology refers to a set of reprogenic technologies that are likely to be in the future, allow parents to influence the genetic constitutions of their children. This could be done through genetic screening of blastocysts (early embryos ), or through germline engineering , which refers to human genetic engineering used to alter genes in the first cells of the blastocyst. [1]Germline engineering changes the genes in a sperm or an egg, which impacts the future DNA of every cell in the embryo. The philosophical movement associated with this technology is transhumanism .

Screening technologies have been in use since at least the beginning of the 1990s to reduce the incidence of genetic disorders , and can be tested for the first time in the early 2010s. [2] Maturation in these fields would increase the range and sophistication of decisions open to parents. Germline engineering and even the engineering of human artificial chromosomes are presently being made in animals. [3] [4] Chinese scientists reported in 2015 that they had modified the genomes of non-viable human embryos , [5]Fredreik Lanner, a Swedish scientist, was reported in 2016 to have modified the genomes of healthy human embryos which were destroyed before they were 14 days old and British scientists in 2016 received permission to edit genes in human embryos which were to be destroyed after seven days . [6] Geert Hamer at the Academic Medical Center , University of Amsterdam in 2016, which is correcting the genetic mutations that cause male infertility could be achieved in five to ten years. This had already been done in mice and, if successful in humans, could be the first case of germline engineering. [7]

See also

  • Designer baby
  • Procreative beneficence
  • Procreative liberty
  • Repository for Germinal Choice
  • Human Germline Engineering

References

  1. Jump up^ Wagner, Cynthia G. (2002). “Germinal Choice Technology: Our Evolutionary Future.” Interview with Gregory Stock . Archived from the original on 2006-02-07 . Retrieved 2006-02-21 .
  2. Jump up^ (2015)Genetic Laboratories and ClinicsWorld Health Organization, Genomic Resource Center, Retrieved 26 April 2015
  3. Jump up^ Sasaki, E .; Suemizu, H .; Shimada, A .; Hanazawa, K .; Oiwa, R .; Kamioka, M .; Tomioka, I .; Sotomaru, Y .; Hirakawa, R .; Eto, T .; Shiozawa, S .; Maeda, T .; Ito, M .; Ito, R .; Kito, C .; Yagihashi, C .; Kawai, K .; Miyoshi, H .; Tanioka, Y .; Tamaoki, N .; Habu, S .; Okano, H .; Nomura, T. (2009). “Generation of non-human transgenic primates with germline transmission”. Nature . 459 (7246): 523-527. Bibcode : 2009Natur.459..523S . doi : 10.1038 / nature08090 . PMID  19478777 .
  4. Jump up^ Reddy, P .; Ocampo, A .; Suzuki, K .; Luo, J .; Bacman, SR; Williams, SL; Sugawara, A .; Okamura, D .; Tsunekawa, Y .; Wu, J .; Lam, D .; Xiong, X .; Montserrat, N .; Esteban, CR; Liu, GH; Sancho-Martinez, I .; Manau, D .; Civico, S .; Cardellach, F .; Del Mar O’Callaghan, M .; Campistol, J .; Zhao, H .; Campistol, JM; Moraes, CT; Izpisua Belmonte, JC (2015). “Selective Elimination of Mitochondrial Mutations in the Germline by Genome Editing” . Cell . 161 (3): 459. doi :10.1016 / j.cell.2015.03.051 . PMC  4505837  . PMID  25910206 .
  5. Jump up^ Cyranoski, D .; Reardon, S. (2015). “Chinese scientists genetically modify human embryos” . Nature . doi : 10.1038 / nature.2015.17378 .
  6. Jump up^ Callaway, Ewen (2016-02-04). “UK scientists gain license to edit genes in human embryos” . Nature . 530 (7588): 18-18. doi : 10.1038 / nature.2016.19270 . PMID  26842037 .
  7. Jump up^ The Page, Michael (2016-07-02). “Male infertility cure will be gateway to editing our kids’ genes” . New Scientist . 231 (3080): 19. doi : 10.1016 / s0262-4079 (16) 31185-x . Retrieved 2016-07-06 . (Subscription required ( help )) .
  • Paul, Diane B. (2002). Swashbuckling into the Nebulous Future . American Scientist . (criticism)

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