Grinders are people who use hackers to improve their own bodies with do-it-yourself cybernetic devices. Many grinders identify with the biopunk movement, open-source transhumanism , and techno-progressivism .    The Grinder movement is Strongly associated with the body modification movement and Practices actual implementation of cybernetic devices in organic bodies as a method of Working Towards transhumanism,   Such as designing and installing do -it-yourself body-enhancements such as magnetic implants.  Biohacking emerged in a growing trend of non-institutional science and technology development.   
According to Biohack.me, “Grinders are passionate individuals who believe the tools and knowledge of science belong to … Grinders practice hack [them] selves with electronic hardware to grinders believe in action, [thei] r bodies the experiment. ” 
“Biohacking” can also be used to manage one’s own biology using a combination of medical, nutritional and electronic techniques. This may include the use of nootropics , non-toxic substances, and / or cybernetic devices for recording biometric data (as in the Quantified Self Movement). 
Grinders largely identify with transhumanist and biopunk ideologies.    Transhumanism is the belief that it is both possible and desirable to fundamentally alter the human condition through the use of technologies as a superior post-human being.    Kara Platoni categorizes such technological changes as “hard” biohacking, noting the desire to expand the boundaries of human perception and even create “new senses”.  
Biopunk is a techno-progressive cultural and intellectual movement which advocates open access to genetic information and espouses the potential   Like other punk movements, Biopunk encourages DIY ethic .  “Grinders” adhere to an anarchist strain of biopunk that emphasizes non-hierarchical science and DIY. 
Cyborgs and cyborg theory strongly influence techno-progressivism and transhumanism and are thus influential to both the DIY-bio movement and grinder movement in general.  Kevin Warwick, one of the most influential and influential professors in the field of organic chemistry.  Examples of this include DIY magnetic fingertip implants or Warwick’s “Cyborg Project”.    Cyborg theory was kickstarted in 1985 with the publication of Donna Haraway’s influential “Cyborg Manifesto” goal can be traced back all the way toManfred Clynes and Nathan Klines’ article, “Cyborgs and Space”.  This body of theory criticizes the rigidity of ontological boundaries and attempts to denaturalize artificial dichotomies . 
- Kevin Warwick is a British scientist and professor of cybernetics who has been instrumental in advancing and popularizing cyborg technology and biohacking through his self-experiments.  
- Steve Mann is a professor of engineering and computer engineering who has dedicated his career to inventing, implementing, and researching cyborg technologies, in particular, wearable computing technologies.
- Amal Graafstra is known for implanting an RFID chip in 2005 and developing human-friendly chips including the first ever implantable NFC chip  . In 2013, he founded the biotech startup company Dangerous Things  . He is also the author of RFID Toys  and speaker on biohacking topics including TEDx  talk. He has also built a smartgun which is activated by his implants  . He has also created an implantable cryptographic processor called VivoKey  for personal identity and cryptography applications.
- Lepht Anonym is a biohacker and transhumanist known for self-surgeries and material implementation of transhumanist ideologies. 
- Winslow Strong is a mathematician and physicist. 
- Tim Cannon is a software developer, entrepreneur, and co-founder of biotech startup company Grindhouse Wetware. 
- Ryan O’Shea is a television host, futurist speaker, and spokesperson of biotech startup company Grindhouse Wetware. 
- Jeffrey Tibbetts is the organizer of the Grindfest events at his lab in California. He is a biohacking researcher who has been featured in a number of articles, such as Gizmodo. 
- Alex Smith is a known biohacker for his work developing new implants, such as the Firefly implants.  DEFCON  has been spoken to various conferences , such as NBC Chicago. 
- Rich Lee is known for implanting headphones in his tragi in 2013, for his work on a vibrating pelvic implant called the Lovetron9000. His biohacking activities were used as a justification to remove his parental custody rights in 2016.                 
- Brian Hanley is an American microbiologist who is known to be one of the first biohackers to engineer their DNA using gene therapy for human enhancement and life extension . 
Groups and organizations
- biohack.me , dedicated forum for biohacking communications and cooperation. It is also host to a wiki of biohacking knowledge at wiki.biohack.me.
- Grindhouse Wetware , a biotechnology startup company based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania .
- Dangerous Things, a biotechnology based company based in Seattle, Washington which focuses on implantable RFID / NFC transponders and magnets.
- Cyberise.Me, a biotechnology R & D / startup company based in Melbourne, Australia working on expanding the range of implantable devices.
Examples in popular culture
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- Ghost in the Shell
- The Island of Doctor Moreau
- BioShock (series)
- Doktor Sleepless
- Uglies series
- Elysium (movie)
- Iron Man
- Poison Ivy (comics)
- Terminator (franchise)
- Deus Ex (series)
- Orphan Black
- James Bond in Casino Royale 
- Watch Dogs 2
- Do-it-yourself biology
Notes and references
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Popper, Ben. “Cyborg America: Inside the strange new world of basement body hackers” . Verge Magazine . Retrieved 2012-11-30 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b “Who We Are” . wiki.biohack.me . 2012-08-28 . Retrieved 2012-11-30 .
- Jump up^ “DIYBio Codes” . DIYBio . 2011 . Retrieved 2012-11-30 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b “Body Change and Bio-Hacking” . wiki.biohack.me . 2012-05-21 . Retrieved 2012-11-30 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b Greg Boustead (2008-12-11). “The Biohacking Hobbyist” . Seed Magazine . Retrieved 2010-07-11 .
- Jump up^ Phil McKenna (2009-01-07). “Rise of the garage genome hackers” . New Scientist . Retrieved 2010-07-11 .
- Jump up^ Patti Schiendelman (2009-01-01). “DIYBio for biohackers” . Make: Online . Retrieved 2010-07-11 .
- Jump up^ Glen Martin (2012-06-28). ” ‘ Biohackers’ mining Their Own bodies’ data” . SF Gate . Retrieved 2012-11-30 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b Meredith L. Patterson (January 30, 2010). “A Biopunk Manifesto” . “Outlaw Biology? Public Participation in the Age of Big Bio.” . Archived from the original on 1 October 2012 . Retrieved 30 November 2012 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b “Frequently Asked Questions” . wiki.biohack.me . 2012-11-13 . Retrieved 2012-11-30 .
- Jump up^ Bostrom, Nick (2005). “A History of Transhumanist Thought” (PDF) . Journal of Evolution and Technology . Retrieved 2012-11-30 .
- Jump up^ Hayles, Katherine (1999). How we became posthuman: virtual bodies in cybernetics, literature, and informatics . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-32139-4 .
- Jump up^ Katherine Hayles (2011-09-11). “H-: Wrestling with Transhumanism” . MetaNexus . Retrieved 2012-11-30 .
- Jump up^ Czuba, Killian (2017). “Fast Forward” . Distillations . 2 (4): 44-45 . Retrieved 18 July 2017 .
- Jump up^ Platoni, Kara (December 8, 2015). We Have the Technology: How Biohackers, Foodies, Physicians, and Scientists Are Transforming Human Perception, One Sense at a Time . Basic Books. pp. 7, 237-254. ISBN 978-0465089970 . Retrieved 18 July 2017 .
- Jump up^ Newitz, Annalee (2001). “Biopunk” . Archived from the original on 2002-12-20 . Retrieved 2007-01-26 .
- Jump up^ Newitz, Annalee (2002). “Genome Liberation” . Retrieved 2007-01-26 . [ permanent dead link ]
- Jump up^ “Oxford Journal of Design History Webpage” . Retrieved 2007-09-24 .
Yet, it remains within the subculture of punk music where the homemade, A4, stapled and photocopied fanzines of the late 1970s fostered the “do-it-yourself” (DIY) production techniques of cut-n-paste letterforms, photocopied and collaged images , hand-scrawled and typewritten texts, to create a recognizable graphic design aesthetic.
- ^ Jump up to:a Gray b , Chris Hables (1995). The Cyborg Handbook . New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0415908498 .
- Jump up^ Warwick, Kevin. “Implants and Technology: The Future of Healthcare?”. TEDxWarwick . TED . Retrieved 2012-11-30 .
- Jump up^ “Projects” . Grindhouse Wetware . Archived from the original on 27 August 2012 . Retrieved 30 November 2012 .
- Jump up^ Clynes, Manfred; Klines (September 1960). “Nathan.” Astronautics .
- Jump up^ Warwick, K, Gasson, M, Hutt, B, Goodhew, I, Kyberd, P, Andrews, B, Teddy, P and Shad, A: “The Application of Implant Technology for Cybernetic Systems,”Archives of Neurology, 60 (10), pp1369-1373, 2003
- Jump up^ https://www.independent.co.uk/news/professor-has-worlds-first-silicon-chip-implant-1174101.html
- Jump up^ “The implantable xNT NFC chip” . Indiegogo . Retrieved 2017-05-26 .
- Jump up^ “Dangerous Things” . Dangerous Things . Retrieved 2017-05-26 .
- Jump up^ “RFID Toys” . amzn.to . Retrieved 2017-05-26 .
- Jump up^ TEDx Talks (2013-10-17), Biohacking – the forefront of a new kind of human evolution: Amal Graafstra at TEDxSFU , retrieved 2016-05-05
- Jump up^ Motherboard (2017-03-23) Who Killed the Smart Gun? , retrieved 2017-05-26
- Jump up^ “Vivokey – The future is waiting ..” vivokey.com . Retrieved 2017-05-26.
- Jump up^ Borland, John. “Transcending the Human, DIY Style” . Wired Magazine . Retrieved 2012-11-30 .
- Jump up^ Strong, Winslow. “Winslow’s Bio” . Biohack Yourself: Transcend Your Limits . Retrieved 3 December 2013 .
- Jump up^ “The DIY Cyborg – VICE” .
- Jump up^ “MISC” . Archived from the original on 9 April 2016.
- Jump up^ “The Real Science Behind the Crazy Night Vision Eyedrops” .
- Jump up^ “Biohack.me – Firefly implants” .
- Jump up^ “DEF CON 23 – BioHacking Village – Alex Smith – Cloning Access Cards to Implants” .
- Jump up^ “Chicago NBC – Human Body Merges With Technology in ‘Biohacking’ Trend” .
- Jump up^ Curtis, Sophie (27 May 2016). “Vibrating penises and bionic arms: The inventions turning people into CYBORGS” .
- Jump up^ “Who needs headphones? Man has ‘speakers’ IMPLANTED in his ears so he can listen to music all the time” .
- Jump up^ “The real cyborgs – in-depth feature on people merging with machines”.
- Jump up^ Dujmovic, Jurica. “Biohackers implant computers, earbuds and antennas in their bodies” .
- Jump up^ “These Young Cyborgs Are Building the Future of Modern Medicine” .
- Jump up^ “This Guy Wants to Give You a Bionic Vibrating Penis” . February 26, 2015.
- Jump up^ “Surgically implanted headphones are literally ‘in-ear ‘ ” .
- Jump up^ “6 Strange Body Hacks That Are Actually Useful” .
- Jump up^ Isaacson, Betsy (26 June 2013). “Man Implants Invisible Headphone In His Ear” .
- Jump up^ “Biohacker, grinder? Crazy, smart? Rich Lee implants magnets in ear as speakers – Toronto Star” .
- Jump up^ Monks, Keiron. “Forget wearable tech, embeddable implants are already here” . CNN.
- Jump up^ “Why This Guy Implanted Headphones In His Ears” .
- Jump up^ “DIY Invisible Implant Helps The Visually-Impaired Navigate – PSFK” . June 26, 2013.
- Jump up^ “This Dad Is a Genius Biohacker.But He Could Lose His Kids Because of It” .
- Jump up^ “This Man Wants to Implant a Vibrator Into His Pubic Fat – VICE” .
- Jump up^ Gonzalez, Vicki. “BIONIC BEINGS: ‘Biohackers’ implant technology into their bodies to advance human race” .
- Jump up^ “Exclusive: Meet the man who wants to turn his penis into a vibrator” .
- Jump up^ Regalado, Antonio. “One man’s quest to hack his own genes” . MIT Technology Review . Retrieved 23 April 2017 .
- Jump up^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yj48dzFsb0c