Hugo de Garis

Hugo de Garis (born 1947, Sydney, Australia) is a retired researcher in the sub-field of artificial intelligence (AI) known as evolvable hardware . He became known in the 1990s for his research on the use of genetic algorithms to evolve neural networks using three-dimensional cellular automata inside programmable field gate arrays . He claimed that this approach would enable the creation of “artificial brains” which would quickly surpass human levels of intelligence . [1]

He has most recently been noted for a belief in major warriors and opponents of intelligent machines, resulting in trillions of deaths, is almost inevitable before the end of the 21st century. [2] : 234 He suggested that they could simply eliminate the human race, and humans would be powerless to stop them because of singularity . This prediction HAS Attracted debate and criticism from the AI research community, and Reviews some of ict more notable members, Such As Kevin Warwick , Bill Joy , Ken MacLeod , Ray Kurzweil , and Hans Moravec ,-have voiced Their opinion is whether or not this future is Likely.

Of Garis’ founding theoretical physics , but he abandoned this field in favor of artificial intelligence. In 1992 he received his PhD from Free University of Brussels , Belgium. He worked as a researcher at ATR (Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International, 国際 電 気 気 通信 技術 技術 技術 研究所 ), Japan from 1994-2000, a researcher at Starlab , Brussels from 2000-2001, and Associate Professor of Computer Science at Utah State University from 2001-2006. Until his retirement in late 2010 [3] he was a professor at Xiamen University , where he was teaching physics and computer science, and ran the Artificial Brain Lab.

Evolvable hardware

From 1993 to 2000 Garis participated in a research project at ATR’s Human Information Processing Research Laboratories (ATR-HIP) which aims to create a billion-neuron artificial brain by the year 2001. [1] The project was known as “cellular automata machine brain, “or” CAM-Brain. ” During this 8-year span he and his fellow researchers published a series of papers in which they discuss the use of genetic algorithms to evolve neural structures inside 3D cellular automata. They argued that neural models had to be created because they were too small, and that it was necessary to manually assemble neural modules together with the neuron. Brain “requiring around 10 million modules; [4] This idea was rejected by Igor Aleksander , who said, “The point is that these puzzles are not puzzles because our neural models are not large enough.” [5]

MIT’s “Cellular Automata Machine-8” (CAM-8), by 1996 it was made that the model originally proposed, which required cellular automata with thousands of states , was too complex to be realized in hardware. The design was made simple, and in 1997 the “collect and distribute 1 bit” (“CoDi-1Bit”) model was published, and work began on a hardware implementation using Xilinx XC6264 FPGAs . This is the CAM Brain Machine (CBM). [6]

The researchers evolved cellular automata for several tasks (using software simulation , not hardware): [6]

  • Reproducing the XOR function.
  • Generating a bitstream that alternates between 0 and 1 three times (ie 000..111..000 ..).
  • Generated a bitstream where the output alternates, but can be changed from a majority of 1s to a majority of 0s by toggling an input.
  • Discriminating between two square wave inputs and a different period .
  • Discriminating between horizontal lines and random noise.

Ultimately the project failed to produce a functional robot control system, and ATR terminated it with the closure of ATR-HIP in February 2001. [7]

The original aim of Garis’ work was to establish the field of “brain building” and “to create a trillion dollar industry within 20 years”. Throughout the 90s his papers claimed that by 2001 the ATR “Robokoneko” (translation: kitten robot) project would develop a billion-neuron “cellular automata machine brain” (CAM-brain), with “computational power equivalent to 10,000 pentiums” that could simulate the brain of a real cat. from Garis received a US $ 0.4 million “fat brain building grant” to develop this. [8]The first “CAM-brain” was delivered to ATR in 1999. After receiving a further US $ 1 million grant at Starlab from Garis failed to deliver a “brain” work before Starlab’s bankruptcy. At USU de Garis announced he was establishing a “brain builder” group to create a second generation “CAM-brain”.

Current research

de Garis published his last “CAM-Brain” research paper in 2002. [9] He still works on evolvable hardware. Using a Celoxica FPGA board he says he can create up to 50,000 neural network modules for less than $ 3000.

Since 2002 he has co-authored several papers on evolutionary algorithms.

He believes that topological quantum computing is about to revolutionize computer science, and hopes that his teaching will help his students to understand its principles. [10]

In 2008 Garis received 3 million Chinese yuan grant (around $ 436,000) to build an artificial brain for China (the China Brain Project ), as part of the Brain Builder Group at Wuhan University . [11]

Hugo de Garis retired in 2010. Before he was director of the artificial brains lab at Xiamen University in China. In 2013 he was studying Mathematics and Physics at PhD level and over the next 20 years. This is called “degarisMPC” and some readings are already available. [12] [13] [14]

Employment history

Garis’s original work on “CAM-brain” machines was part of an 8-year research project, from 1993 to 2000, at the ATR Human Information Processing Research Laboratories (ATR-HIP) in Kyoto Prefecture , Japan . de Garis left in 2000, and ATR-HIP was closed on 28 February 2001. by Garis then moved to Starlab in Brussels, where he received a million dollars in funding from the government of Belgium (“over a third of the Brussels government’s total budget for scientific research “, according to de Garis). [15] Starlab went bankrupt in June 2001. A few months later, Garis was employed as an associate professor at the Utah State University computer science department . In May 2006 he became a professor atWuhan University ‘s international school of software, graduate level mathematics , theoretical physics and computer science.

Since June 2006 he has been a member of the advisory board of Novamente, a commercial company which aims to create artificial general intelligence .

The Artilect War

of Garis believed that a major war before the end of the 21st century, resulting in trillions of deaths, is almost inevitable. [2] : 234 Intelligent Machines (or ‘artilects’ has Shortened form of ‘artificial intellects’) Will Be Far smart more than humans and will Threaten to Attain world domination , resulting and in a conflict between ‘Cosmists’ Who Support the artilects , and ‘Terrans’, who oppose them (both of these are terms of his invention). He describes this conflict as a ‘gigadeath’ war, reinforcing the point that billions of people will be killed. [16] [17]This research has been done by Chris Malcolm, who has described it as “entertaining science fiction horror stories which have come to the attention of the popular media”. [18] Kevin Warwick called it “hellish nightmare, as portrayed in such films as the Terminator “. [2] :
Garis’ back cover In 2005 published a book describing his views on this topic entitled The Artilect War: Cosmists vs.. Terrans: A Bitter Controversy Concerning Humanity Should Build Godlike Massively Intelligent Machines . [2]

Cosmism is a moral philosophy that favors building or growing strong artificial intelligence and finally leaving Earth to the Terrans, who opposes this path for humanity. The first half of the book describes technologies which it believes will make it possible for computers to be trillions of times more intelligent than humans. He predicts that as an artificial intelligence improves and becomes progressively more human-like, it will be necessary to proceed. Cosmists will be able to see the massive, truly astronomical potential of substrate-independent cognition, and will therefore advocate unlimited growth in the designated fields, in hopes that “super-intelligent” machines might one day colonize the universe.cosmic “view of history, in qui the fate of one single species, on one single planet, is seen as insignificant next to the fate of the Known Universe , That Gives the Cosmists Their name.
Hugo identified With That group and Noted That It ‘ would be a cosmic tragedy if humanity freezes evolution at the puny human level “. [19]

Terrans on the other hand, will be more earth-centred, in which the fate of the Earth and its species are seen to be all-important. To Terrans, a future without humans is to be avoided at all costs, as It Would Represent theworst-case scenario. As such, Terrans would be unable to find fault with the possibility that such a highly intelligent machine might cause the destruction of the human race to be very immensely intelligent and so cosmically inclined, than humans do in using drugs to cure diseases. So, Terrans will see themselves as living in the future of a window of opportunity, to disable future artilects before they are built, after which humans will no longer have a say in the affairs of intelligent machines.

It is these two extreme ideologies which of Garis may well be a new world, the one with a ‘big plan’ (the Cosmists) will be rabidly opposed by a plan ). The factions, he predicts, may eventually warn the death because of this, as the Terrans will come back to the cosmists as “arch-monsters” when they begin seriously discussing acceptable risks, and the probabilities of large percentages of earth-based life going extinct. In addition, the Cosmists will come to the Terrans as being reactionary extremists, and will stop treating them and their ideas seriously, further aggravating the situation, possibly beyond reconciliation.

Throughout his book, from Garis states that he is ambivalent about which viewpoint he ultimately supports, and attempts to make convincing cases for both sides. He elaborates towards the end of the book, the more he feels like a cosmist, because he feels that despite the horrible possibility he can not ignore the fact que le human species is just another link in the evolutionary chain, and must Become extinct in Their current form anyway, whereas the artilects Could very well be the next link fait que chain and therefore Would Be good candidate to carry the torch of science and exploration in the rest of the universe.

It relates to a morally isomorphic scenario in which extraterrestrial intelligences visit the earth three billion years ago and discover two domains of life living there, one domain which is older but simpler and contemporarily dominant, but which on closer study appears to be incapable of much further evolutionary development; and one youngerdomain which is struggling to survive, but which on the future study displays the potential to evolve into all the varieties of life existing on the Earth today, of life to ensure the survival of the younger one, or to destroy the age of death. He states that he believes that he is most likely to be at least as far as the outcome of the future is concerned. ,, hopefully before the factions becomes irreconcilably polarized, which outcome it prefers.

Garis also predicts a third group that will emerge between the two. He refers to this third party as Cyborgians or Cyborgs , because they will not be opposed to artilects as such, but desire to become artilects themselves by adding components to their own human brains, rather than falling into obsolescence. They will seek to become artilects by gradually merging themselves with machines and thinking that the dichotomy between the Cosmists and Terrans can be avoided because of all human beings would become artilects. [17]
The transhumanist movement is generally identified as Cyborgians.

From Garis’ concept of the Cyborgians might have stemmed from a conversation with Kevin Warwick : in 2000, from Garis noted, “Just out of curiosity, I asked Kevin Warwick whether he was a Terran or a Cosmist. of the artiles being built (ie, he is Terran) I was surprised, and felt a shiver go up my spine That moment reminded me of a biography of Lenin that I had read in my 20s in which the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks first started Debating the Future Government of Russia: The Future of a Russian Civil War After 1917 between the White and the Red Russians “. [19]


  • “Humans should not stand in the way of a higher form of evolution.These machines are godlike.It is human destiny to create them.”
– as quoted in the New York Times Magazine of 1 August 1999, speaking of the ‘artilects’ of the future.
  • “I believe that the ideological disagreements between these two groups will be so strong, that a major” artilect “war, killing billions of people, will be almost inevitable before the end of the 21st century.” [2] : 234
– speaking in 2005 of the Cosmist / Terran conflict.
  • “Twenty years from now, the author considers the world’s leading industry as one of the world’s top industries, comparable to oil, automotive, and construction.” [1]
– prediction made in 1996.


  • of Garis, Hugo (28 February 2005). The Artilect War: Cosmists vs. Terrans: A Bitter Controversy Concerning Humanity Should Build Godlike Massively Intelligent Machines . ETC Publications. p. 254. ISBN  978-0-88280-153-7 .
  • from Garis, Hugo (18 March 2010). Multis and Monos: What Can Multicultured Can Teach the Monocultured: Towards the Creation of a Global State . ETC Publications. p. 514. ISBN  978-0-88280-162-9 .
  • of Garis, Hugo (November 2010). Artificial Brains: An Evolved Neural Net Module Approach . World Scientific. p. 400. ISBN  981-4304-28-X .

See also

  • Artificial brain


  1. ^ Jump up to:c Hugo de Garis (1996). “CAM-BRAIN: The Evolutionary Engineering of a Billion Neuron Artificial Brain by 2001 Which Grows Evolves at Electronic Speeds Inside a Cellular Automata Machine (CAM)” (PDF) . Towards Evolvable Hardware; the Evolutionary Engineering Approach : 76-98. one could use planetoid size asteroids to build huge 3d brain like computers containing 40 components with one bit per atom. So late into the 21st century, the author predicts that human beings will be confronted with the “artilect” (artificial intellect) with a brain vastly superior to the human brain with its pitiful trillion neurons.
  2. ^ Jump up to:e Hugo de Garis (2005). The Artilect War: Cosmists Vs. Terrans: A Bitter Controversy Concerning Humanity Should Build Godlike Massively Intelligent Machines . Palm Springs, CA: ETC Publications. ISBN  0-88280-154-6 .
  3. Jump up^ Biography: Hugo de Garis, Xiamen University, China
  4. Jump up^ Michael Korkin; Hugo de Garis; Felix Gers; Hitoshi Hemmi (1999). ” CBM (CAM-Brain Machine) : A hardware tool which evolves to a neural net module in a fraction of a second and runs to million neuron artificial brain in real time” (PDF) . Genetic Programming 1997: Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference .
  5. Jump up^ BBC News (7 January 1999). “Best brain boosts artificial life” . Retrieved 5 January 2010 .
  6. ^ Jump up to:b Hugo de Garis (1999). “ATR’s Artificial Brain (” CAM-Brain “) Project: A Sample of What Individual” CoDi-1Bit “Model Evolved Neural Net Modules Can Do with Digital and Analog I / O” (PDF) . Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference : 13-17.
  7. Jump up^ “HIP World Wide Web Server” . The project of ATR Human Information Processing Research Laboratories (ATR-HIP) was closed on 28 February 2001
  8. Jump up^ Hugo de Garis (2002). “Prof. de Garis creates the Planet’s First Brain Building Center (BBC) (at USU)” . The BBC is submitting research grant proposals to the usual sources to get a fat brain building grant comparable to the $ 400K given for this work by the Japanese when I was at ATR in Kyoto, and the $ 1M given by the Brussels Government before the bankruptcy of my previous lab Starlab.
  9. Jump up^ Hugo de Garis; Michael Korkin (2002). “The CAM-Brain Machine (CBM): an FPGA-based hardware tool that evolves a 1000 neuron-net circuit module in seconds and updates a 75 million neuron artificial brain for real-time robot control” (PDF) . Neurocomputing . 42 (1-4): 35-68. doi : 10.1016 / S0925-2312 (01) 00593-8 .
  10. Jump up^ “Machines Like Us Interviews: Hugo de Garis” . September 3, 2007.
  11. Jump up^ “The China-Brain Project: Building China’s Artificial Brain Using Evolved Neural Net Module Approach” (PDF) . Artificial General Intelligence Research Institute . Teacher. Hugo de Garis has recently received a 3 million RMB, 4 year grant to build China’s first artificial brain, starting in 2008
  12. Jump up^ Hugo De Garis (2012). “deGarisMPC” . . Retrieved April 7, 2014 .
  13. Jump up^ Hugo De Garis (2012). “profhugodegaris” . . Retrieved April 7, 2014 .
  14. Jump up^ Nicola Danaylov, Prof. Hugo de Garis (June 26, 2012). Hugo Garis on Singularity 1 on 1 (Webcast). Nicola Danaylov. Event occurs at 1:27 . Retrieved April 7, 2014 .
  15. Jump up^ Hugo de Garis (2000). “Garis / STARLAB Gets $ Million Brain Building Grant and Meets President of Brussels Government” . I heard that this grant is accepted, and to the tune of a million dollars (US) equivalent, over a third of the Brussels government’s total budget for scientific research.
  16. Jump up^ “Machines Like Us Interviews: Hugo de Garis” . 3 September 2007.gigadeath – the characteristic number of people who would be killed in any major late 21st century war, if one extrapolates up the graph of the number of people killed in major wars over the past 2 centuries
  17. ^ Jump up to:b Garis, Hugo. “The Artilect War – Cosmists vs. Terrans” (PDF) . . Retrieved 14 June 2015 .
  18. Jump up^ Chris Malcolm (2000). “Why Robots Will not Rule the World” . Archived from the original on 2010-07-22.
  19. ^ Jump up to:b Hugo de Garis (2002). “First shot in Artilect war fired” . Archived from the original on 17 October 2007.

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