Human-animal hybrid

The term human-animal hybrid or animal-human hybrid refers to an entity that incorporates elements from both humans and non-human animals. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6]

Description

For thousands of years, these hybrids have been one of the most common themes in storytelling about animals throughout the world. The lack of a strong divide between humanity and human nature in multiple traditional and ancient cultures has provided the context historical context for the popularity of tales where humans and animals have mingling relationships, such as that in which one turns into the other or mixed being goes through a journey. [7] Interspecies friendships within the animal kingdom, and their pets, additionally provides an underlying root for the popularity of such beings. [1]

In various mythologies throughout history, many particularly famous hybrids have existed, including as part of Egyptian and Indian spirituality. [2] [7] According to the artist and scholar Pietro Gaietto , “representations of human-animal hybrids always have their origins in religion”. As well, “successive traditions they may change in meaning but they still remain within spiritual culture” in his view. [2] The entities-have beens aussi characters in fictional media more recently in history Such As in HG Wells ‘ work The Island of Doctor Moreau , adapté into the popular 1932 movie Island of Lost Souls . [4]In legendary terms, the hybrids have played a role in the role of villains and villains in the context of divinity. [7]

For example, Pan is a deity in Greek mythology that is untamed wild, being worshiped by hunters, fishermen, and shepherds in particular. The mischievous yet cheerful character is a Satyr who has the hindquarters, legends, and horns of a human being early Greece by groups such as the Delphian Society . [8] Specifically, the human-animal hybrid has appeared in acclaimed works of art by Francis Bacon . [6]Additional famous mythological hybrids include the Egyptian god of death , named Anubis , and the fox-like Japanese beings that are called Kitsune . [7]

When looked at scientifically, outside of a fictional and / or mythical context, the real-life creation of human-animal hybrids has been a subject of legal, moral, and technological debate in the context of recent advances in genetic engineering . [3] [5] [9] Defined by the magazine H + as “genetic alterations that are blendings [sic] of animal and human forms”, such hybrids may be considered as other “para-humans”. [1] [3] They may additionally be called “humanized animals”. [9] Technically speaking, they are also related to “cybrids” ( cytoplasmic hybrids ), with “cybrid”inside of them being a topic of interest. Possibly, a real-world human-animal hybrid can be formed from a human egg fertilized by a nonhuman sperm or a nonhuman egg fertilized by a human sperm. [3] While at first being white has the concept in the likes of legends and thought experiments , the first permanent human-animal chimeras (not hybrids purpose related) to Actually exist Were first created by Shanghai Second Medical University scientists in 2003, the result of HAVING fused human cells with rabbit eggs. [5] As well, a patent has been granted for a chimera with a human immune system .[9]

In terms of scientific ethics , restrictions on the creation of human-animal hybrids have been controversial in many countries. While the state of Arizona banned the practice altogether in 2010, a proposal on the subject that sparked some interest in the United States Senate from 2011 to 2012 ended up going nowhere. Although the two concepts are not strictly related, discussions of experimentation into blended human and animal creatures have paralleled the discussions about embryonic stem-cell research (the ‘ stem cell controversy ‘). [3] The creation of genetically modified organismsFor more information, please visit: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bbbbbbbbbbbbc [10]

DESPITE the legal and moral controversy over the real-life as possible making of Such Beings, [3] [5] [9] Then President George W. Bush Even speaking on the subject In His 2006 State of the Union , [11] the concept of humanoid creatures with hybrid features of animals, played in a dramatic and sensationalized fashion, has continued to be a popular element of fictional media in the digital age. Examples include Splice , a 2009 movie about experimental genetic research, [3] and The Evil Within , a survival horror video game released in 2014 in which theprotagonist fights grotesque hybrid creatures among other enemies. [12]

Legendary historical and mythological human-animal hybrids

Beings displaying a mixture of human and animal traits while also having a similarly blended appearance have played a large and varied role in multiple traditions around the world. [2] [7] Artist and scholar Pietro Gaietto HAS written That “representations of human-animal hybrids always-have Their origins in religion.” In “successive traditions they can change in meaning but they still remain within spiritual culture”, Gaietto has argued, when looking back in an evolution -minded point of view. The beings show up in both Greekand Roman mythology , with various elements of ancient Egyptian society, and flowing in those cultures in particular. Prominent examples inancient Egyptian religion , featuring Reviews some of the Earliest Such hybrid Beings, include the canine -like god of death Known As Anubis and the lion-like Sphinx . [2] Other instances of these types of characters include figures within both Chinese and Japanese mythology . [2] [7] [13] The observation of interspecies friendships within the animal kingdom, have been a source of the appeal in such stories. [1]

A prominent hybrid figure that is known is the mythological Greek figure of Pan. A deity that rules over and symbolizes the untamed wild, it helps express the inherent beauty of the natural world as the Greeks saw things. He actually received reverence by ancient hunters , fishermen, shepherds, and other groups with a close connection to nature. Pan is a Satyr who possesses the hindquarters, legacies, and horns of a goat; Stories of his encounters with different gods, humans, and others have been a part of popular culturein many different cultures for many years. [8] The human-animal hybrid has appeared in acclaimed works of art by figures such asFrancis Bacon , [6] also being mentioned in poetic pieces such as John Fletcher’s writings. [8]

In Chinese mythology , the figure of Chu Pa-chieh undergoes a personal journey in which he gives up wickedness for virtue. After being disturbed in heaven from his actions, he is exiled to Earth. By mistake, he enters the womb of a half-man / half-pig entity. With the head and ears of a pig joined with a human body, his already animal-like sense of selfishness from his past life remains. Killing His Mother and eating as well as devouring His Brothers , he Makes His Way to a mountain hideout, spending His days are preying unwary travelers unlucky enough to cross His path. However, the exhortations of the kind goddess Kuan Yin, journeying in China, persuades him to seek a path, and his life journey is the same as that of the goddess herself. [14] Remarking on the character’s role in the religious novel Journey to the West , where the first appears, Professor Victor H. Mair has commented that “[p] ig-human hybrids represent descent and the grotesque, capitulation to the basest appetites “rather than” self-improvement “. [13]

Several hybrid entities have long played a major role in Japanese media and in traditional beliefs within the country. For example, a warrior god known as Amida received worship as a part of Japanese mythology for many years; he possessed the humanoid appearance while having a canine-like head. However, the god’s devotional popularity fell into the middle of the 19th century. [2] A Tanuki resembles a gold raccoon badger , but its shape-shifting talents allow it to turn into humans for the purposes of trickery, such as impersonating Buddhist monks . The fox-like creatures known as Kitsunealso possesses similar powers, and stories abound of them tricking human men into marriage by turning into seductive women. [7]

Other examples include characters in ancient Anatolia and Mesopotamia . The latter has the tradition of a malevolent human-animal hybrid deity in Pazuzu , the demon featuring a humanoid shape yet having grotesque features such as sharp heels . [2] The character picked up revived Attention When an interpretation of it Appeared in William Peter Blatty ‘s 1971 novel The Exorcist and the Academy Award winning 1973 movie adaptation of the Sámi name , with the demon Possessing the body of an innocent young girl. The movie, seen asOne of the greatest horror movies of all time ,: has a prologue in qui co-protagonist Father Merrin ( Max von Sydow ) visits an archaeological dig in Iraq and ominously Discovers an old statue of the monstrous being white. [15] [16]

More modern portrayals of fictional hybrids

rominent pieces of children’s literature, often as protagonists in the stories. In the opinion of the popular educator Lucy Sprague Mitchell , the desire of such mythical and fantastic bodies comes from the desire for “direct” language “told in terms of images-visual, auditory, tactile, muscle images”. Another author has remarked that an “animal costume” provides “a way to emphasize or even exaggerate a particular characteristic”. The anthropomorphic characters in the seminal works by the English writer Beatrix Potter in particular live an ambiguous situation, having human dress and displaying many instinctive animal traits., a later author commented that in “balancing humanized domesticity against wild rabbit foraging, Potter subverted parental authority and its built in hypocrisy” in Potter’s child-centered books. Writer Lisa Fraustino is quoted on RM Lockley’s tongue-in-cheek comment: “Rabbits are so human. [17]

Writer HG Wells created His famous work The Island of Doctor Moreau , featuring a mixture of horror and science fiction Elements, to Promote the anti- vivisection because apart as de son long-time advocacy for animal rights . Dr. Moreau, a morally depraved scientist who has created several human-animal hybrids even by combining parts of other animals. The story has been adapted to several times, with varying success. The most notable and acclaimed version is the 1932 black-and-white treatment called Island of Lost Souls . [4]

Wells wrote that “this story was the answer of an imaginative mind to the reminder that humanity is aiming at a rough shape and in a perpetual way,” with the scandals surrounding Oscar Wilde being the impetus for the English writer’s treatment of themes such as ethics and psychology. Challenging the Victorian era , the 1896 work presents a complex situation in which enhancing the effects of these two phenomena, both of which have a negative impact on the power of raw instinct. A pessimistic view towards the ability of human civilization to live by law-abiding , moral standardsfor long so follows. [18]

The 1986 horror film The Fly features a deformed and monstrous human-animal hybrid, played by actor Jeff Goldblum . [1] His character, scientist Seth Brundle, undergoes a teleportation experiment goes awry and fuses That _him_ at a Fundamental genetic level with a common fly caught Besides _him_. Brundle experiences drastic mutations as a result that horrify him. Movie critic Gerardo Valero HAS written que le famous horror work, “released at the dawn of the AIDS epidemic ,” “was seen by Many as a metaphor for the disease” while aussi playing on bodily fears about dismemberment and coming apart That Human Beings inherently share. [19]

The science fiction movie Splice , released in 2009, shows scientists mixing together human and animal DNA in the hopes of Advancing medical research at the pharmaceutical company That They work at. Calamitous results occur. [3]

The HP Lovecraft movie Dagon , released in 2001, features grotesque hybrid beings. In terms of comic books , examples of fictional human-animal hybrids include Charles Burns ‘ Black Holeseries. In these comics, a set of teenagers in a 1970s era will become afflicted by a bizarre disease; the sexually transmitted affliction mutates them into monstrous forms. [1]

Multiple video games have featured human-animal hybrids as enemies for the protagonist (s) to defeat, including powerful boss characters . For instance, the 2014 survival horror release The Evil Within includes grotesque hybrid beings, looking like the undead , attacking main character Detective Sebastian Castellanos. With partners Joseph Oda and Julie Kidman, the protagonist has investigated multiple homicides at a mental hospital and discovers a mysterious figure who turns the world around them into a living nightmare, Castellanos having to find the truth about the criminal psychopath . [12]

Heroic character examples of human-animal Anthropomorphic characters include the two protagonists of the movie The Cat Returns (English title : 猫 の 恩 返 し), with the animated filmfeaturing a young girl (named “Haru”) feline -human hybrid and fighting a villainous king of the cats with the help of a male dashing cat companion (known as “Baron”) at her side. The English language version of the movie Anne Hathaway and Cary Elwes in the main roles, respectively. [20] [21] The critically acclaimed movie, with a score of 89% from Rotten Tomatoes ,[22] was directed by Hiroyuki Morita . [20] [21] In a notable moment, the once-again human haru confesses to having romantic feelings for the baron, who responds in an ambiguous manner before leaving.

Scientific research and related issues

Background and analysis

Broadly speaking, a hybrid of the whole body and a new genetic combination. For instance, a liger : has a lion father and a tigress mother, Such a creature Existing only in captivity . [23]

A chimera is not the same thing as a hybrid because it is a being composed of two or more distinctly distinct cells in one entity; it does not exist as a member of a separate species. An animal that has experienced an organ transplant or related surgery involving tissue from a different species is an example. [5]

Throughout past human evolution , hybridization occurred in many different instances, such as cross-breeding between Neanderthals and ancient versions of what are now modern humans. Some scientists have believed that particular genes of the Neanderthal may have been key to ancient humans’ adaptation to the harsh climates they faced when they left Africa . However, in the past, the term is used in the context of sterile offspring . [23]

For much of modern history, the creation of genetically modified organisms in general is a topic rooted in fiction rather than practical research. This report is of a general nature and is of general importance for genetic engineering purposes. For example, as of 2013 about 85% of the corn grown in the US 90% of its canola has been genetically modified. [10] As well, many Americans have had cardiovascular surgery in their procedures. [9]

Issues relating to possible human-animal hybrids outside of a fictional, historical, or mythical context but as a real, engineered beings received major international attention in 2003, after some Chinese scientists at the Shanghai Second Medical University managed to successfully fuse human cells with rabbit eggs . The embryos formally reported were the first stable human-animal chimeras in existence. Research in similar areas continued into 2004 and 2005, with the topic picking up coverage from publications Such As National Geographic News . The National Academy of Sciences was first introduced to the ethical issues involved. [5] The US Patent and Trademark Officeadditionally caused by a patent application for a genetically modified mouse with a human immune system . [9] Scientists announced in 2017 that they successfully created the first human-animal chimeric embryo. The embryo is mostly pig cells and some human cells. Scientists stated that they hope to use this technology to address the shortage of organs. [24]

Legal and moral discussions

Advances in genetic engineering caused a large amount of debates and discussion in the fields related to bioethics , and research relating to the hypothetical creation of human-animal hybrids in the future has no exception. The technical analyzes of intermingling human-based and animal-based genetic material are ongoing; the ethical, moral, and legal issues arising from actual research using chimeras (rather than hybrids per se) While laws against the creation of hybridization have been proposed in the United States and the US Congress, several scientists have argued that it may be necessary to prohibit the use of medications.[3] [5] [9] Although the two topics are not strictly related, the debates involving the creation of human-animal hybrids have paralleled that of the debates around the stem-cell research controversy. [3]

The question of what line exists between a human being and a non-human being. While animals with something similar to one another, they do not seem to be in the same boat as other animals. . “I do not think anyone knows in terms of crude Percentages how to Differentiate entre humans and nonhumans,” US patent office official John Doll HAS Stated. [9] Critics of Increased government restrictions include scientists Such As Dr. Douglas Kniss, head of the Laboratory of Perinatal Research at Ohio State University, who has remarked that these laws are not the best option since the “notion of animal-human hybrids is very complex.” He is also arguing that their creation is inherently “not the kind of thing we support” in his kind of research. [3] “There are some things that are worth doing in this area,” says Michael Werner, chief commentator for the Biotechnology Industry Organization . [9]

In contrast, notable socio-economic theorist Jeremy Rifkin has expressed opposition to research that creates barriers between species boundaries, arguing that it interferes with the fundamental ‘right to exist’ possessed by each animal species. “One does not have to be in the right to do so,” he said, “in favor of expressing support for anti-chimera and anti-hybrid legislation. William Cheshire, Associate Professor of Neurology at the Mayo Clinic’s Florida branch, “the unexplored biologic territory” and advocates for a “moral threshold of human neural development” to restrict the destruction of human embryo to obtain cell material and / or the creation of an organism that is partly human and partly “He said,” We must be cautious not to violate the integrity of the human life of animal life over which we have stewardship responsibility. ” [5]

In the US, efforts into creating a hybrid entity appeared to be legal when the topic first came up. The developmental biologist Stuart Newman , a professor at New York Medical College in Valhalla, NY , applied for a human-animal chimera in 1997 as a challenge to the US Patent and Trademark Office and the US Congress , motivated by his moral scientific opposition to the notion that living things can be patented at all. Prior legal precedent had been established that genetically engineered entities in general could be patented, even if they were based on their own in nature. [9]

After a seven-year process, Newman’s patent finally received a flat rejection. The legal process has been created by a paper trail of arguments, giving Newman what he considered a victory. The Washington Post ran an article on the controversy that stated that it had “profound questions about the differences– and similarities– between humans and other animals, and the limits of treating animals as property.” [9] President George W. Bush brought up the topic in his 2006 State of the Union Addressin which it is called for the prohibition of “human cloning in all its forms”, “creating or implanting embryos for experiments”, “creating human-animal hybrids”, and also “buying, selling, or patenting human embryos”. He argued, “A hopeful society has the institutions of science and medicine that do not cut ethical corners and that recognize the matchless value of every life.” He also stated that humanity “should never be discarded, devalued or put up for sale.” [11]

A 2005 appropriations bill passed by the US Congress and signed into law by President Bush and the United States. [9] In terms of outright bans on hybrid research in the first place, a measure came up in the 110th Congressentitled the Human-Animal Hybrid Prohibition Act of 2008 . Politician Chris Smith ( R , NJ-4Introduced on April 24, 2008. The text of the proposed act stated that “human dignity and the integrity of the human species are compromised” if such hybrids exist and set up a punishment of imprisonment for up to ten years fine of over one million dollars. Though Attracting Many media from co-sponsors Such As Then Representatives Mary Fallin , Duncan Hunter , Joseph R. Pitts , and Rick Renzi Among others, the Act failed to get through Congress. [25]

A related proposal had come up in the US Senate the prior year, the Human-Animal Hybrid Prohibition Act of 2007 , and it also had failed. That effort was proposed by then Senator Sam Brownback ( R , KS ) on November 15, 2007. The House of Commons, its bipartisan group of cosponsors included Tom Coburn Senators , Jim DeMint , and Mary Landrieu . [26]

A localized measure designed to ban the establishment of hybrid entities cam up in the state of Arizona in 2010. The proposal Was signed into law by Then Governor Jan Brewer . [3]

See also

  • animacy
  • Alyoshenka
  • anthropomorphism
  • biopunk
  • Chimera
  • Furry fandom
  • Gene therapy
  • Genetic engineering
  • Human-animal bonding
  • Human-animal communication
  • Human-animal studies
  • Human enhancement
  • humanzee
  • Hybrid
  • Interspecies friendships
  • List of hybrid creatures in mythology
  • Mary Toft
  • Mythic animal
  • Mythic humanoids
  • Mythological hybrid
  • Nephilim
  • Otherkin
  • Posthuman
  • Transhumanism
  • Trial of Thomas Hogg
  • zoophilia

References

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  13. ^ Jump up to:b Victor H. Mair (2013). The Columbia History of Chinese Literature . Columbia University Press. p. 129. ISBN  9780231528511 .
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  24. Jump up^ “Human-Hybrid Pig Created in the Lab-Here Are the Facts” . 2017-01-26 . Retrieved 2017-01-27 .
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