Irving John (” IJ “; ” Jack “) Good (9 December 1916 – 5 April 2009)   was a British mathematician who worked as a cryptologist at Bletchley Park with Alan Turing . After World War II, Good Continued to Work with Turing on Computer Graphics and Bayesian Statistics at the University of Manchester . Good moved to the United States where he was professor at Virginia Tech .
He was born Isadore Jacob Gudak to a Polish Jewish family in London. He later wrote to John Irving Good and signed his publications ” IJ Good .”
An originator of the concept of ” intelligence explosion ,” Stanley Kubrick , director of the 1968 film 2001: A Space Odyssey . 
Good was born Isadore Jacob Gudak to Polish Jewish parents in London. His father was a watchmaker, who later became a successful fashionable jewelery shop, and was also a notable Yiddish writer writing under the pen-name of Moshe Oved. Good as educated at the Haberdashers ‘Aske’s Boys’ School , at the time in Hampstead in north west London, where Dan van der Vat writes, Good effortlessly outpaced the mathematics curriculum. 
Good students mathematics at Jesus College, Cambridge , graduating in 1938 and winning the Smith’s Prize in 1940.  He did research under GH Hardy and Besicovich before moving to Bletchley Park in 1941 on completing his doctorate.
On May 27, 1941, having just obtained his doctorate at Cambridge, Good walked into Hut 8 , Bletchley’s facility for breaking German naval ciphers, for his first shift. This was the day that Britain’s Royal Navy destroyed the German battleship Bismarck after it had sunk the Royal Navy’s HMS Hood . Bletchley had contributed to Bismarck ‘ s destruction by discovering, through wireless-traffic analysis, that the German flagship was sailing for Brest, France , rather than Wilhelmshaven , from which she had set out.  Hut 8 had not, however, been able to decrypt the 22 German NavalEnigma messages that had been sent to Bismarck . The German Navy’s Enigma was made more secure than those of the German Army or Air Force, which had been well penetrated by 1940. Naval messages were commonly used for the British. This was about to change, however, with Good’s help. 
Alan Turing … had caught sleeping on the floor while on duty during his first night shift. At first, Turing thought was good, but it was well explained that he was tired. For days afterwards, Turing would not be good, and he left the room if Good walked in. The new recruit only won Turing’s respect after he solved the bigram tables problem. A subsequent night shift, where there is no other way to be done, The German telegraphists had to add dummy letters to the trigrams which they selected out of the kenngruppenbuch… Good wondered if their choice of dummy letters was random, or if there was a bias towards particular letters. After inspecting some messages which had been broken, That being the case, all the codebreakers had to do, to the beginnings of the indicators given at the beginning of each message, and Joan Clarke had done before. The bigram table which produced one of the most popular dummy letters was probably the correct one. When Turing was very embarrassed, and said, ‘I could have sworn that I tried that.’ It quickly became an important part of the Banburismus procedure.
Jack Good’s refusal to go back to work. Another long night shift, he had been baffled by his failure to break a doubly enciphered Offizier message. This is one of the messages that was originally implemented with the Enigma set in the default settings, and subsequently with the general Enigma settings in place. However, while he was sleeping before returning for another shift, he dreamed that the order had been reversed; the general settings had been applied before the Offizier settings. Next day he found that the message had yet to be read, so he applied the theory which had come to him during the night. It worked; he had broken the code in his sleep. 
Good served with Turing for nearly two years. 
Subsequently, he worked with Donald Michie in Max Newman’s group on the Fish ciphers , leading the development of the Colossus computer .
Good Was a member of the Chess Club Bletchley qui defeated the Oxford University Chess Club 8-4 in a twelve-board team match Held on 2 December 1944. Good played fourth board for Bletchley Park, with CHO’D. Alexander , Harry Golombek , and James Macrae Aitken in the top three spots.  He won his game against Sir Robert Robinson . 
In 1947 Newman invited to join Turing at Manchester University . There for three years Good reading in mathematics and researched computers, including the Manchester Mark 1 . 
In 1948 Good was recruited by the Government Communications Headquarters ( GCHQ ), successor to Bletchley Park . He remained there until 1959, while also taking a brief associate professorship at Princeton University and a short consultancy with IBM . 
From 1959 until he moved to the US in 1967, he held a senior research fellowship at Trinity College, Oxford , and Atlas Computer Laboratory , where he continued his interests in computing, statistics and chess.  He later left Oxford, declaring it “a little stiff”.
In 1967, he was appointed to a research professor of statistics at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University . In 1969 he was appointed to the University Distinguished Professor at Virginia Tech, and in 1994 Emeritus University Distinguished Professor.  In 1973 he was elected a Fellow of the American Statistical Association . 
He later said in Virginia (from England) in 1967 to start teaching at VPI, where he taught from 1967 to 1994:
“I arrived in Blacksburg in the seventh day of the seventh day, and I was in Apartment 7 of Block 7 … all by luck.” 
Research and publications
Good work done on a million words.  He is known for his work on Bayesian statistics . He published a number of books on probability theory . In 1958 he published an early version of what later of est devenu Known as the fast Fourier transform  goal it Did not est devenu Widely known. He went to chess to county standard and helped popularize Go , an Asian boardgame, through a 1965 article in New Scientist (he had learned the rules from Alan Turing).  In 1965 he originated the concept of ” intelligence explosion ,” which anticipates the eventual advent ofsuperhuman intelligence :
Let an ultraintelligent machine be defined as a machine that can surpass all the intellectual activities of any man but clever. Since the design of machines is one of those intellectual activities, an ultraintelligent machine could design even better machines; There would be an explosion of intelligence, and the intelligence of man would be far behind. Thus the first ultraintelligent machine is the last invention that man need ever make, provided that the machine is docile enough to tell us how to keep it under control. 
Goodness of the treatise of such speculative “Speculations Concerning the First Ultraintelligent Machine” and “Logic of Man and Machine” (both 1965) made him the obvious person for Stanley Kubrick to consult when filming 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968), one of whose Main characters was the paranoid HAL 9000 supercomputer .  In 1995 Good member of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences . 
According to his assistant, Leslie Pendleton, in 1998, wrote in an unpublished autobiographical statement that he suspected an ultraintelligent machine would lead to the extinction of man . 
The slender, bushy-moustached Good was hurt with a sense of humor . He published a paper under the names IJ Good and “K Caj Doog” – the latter, his own nickname spelled backwards. In a 1988 paper,  he introduced its subject by saying, “Many people have contributed to this topic. In Virginia he thing as His vanity license plate , “007IJG,” in subtle reference à son World War II intelligence work. 
Good never married.  After going through ten assistants in his first thirteen years at Virginia, he hired Leslie Pendleton, who was up to the task of managing his quirks. He wanted to marry her, but she refused. Though there was speculation, they were never more than friends, but she was his assistant, companion, and friend for the rest of his life. 
Good died on 5 April 2009 of natural causes in Radford , Virginia, aged 92. 
- Good, IJ (1950), Probability and the Weighing of Evidence , London: Griffin, ASIN B0000CHL1R
- Good, Irving John (1965), The estimation of probabilities: An essay on modern Bayesian methods , Research monograph no. 30, MIT Press, ASIN B0006BMRMM
- Good, Irving John (1965), The scientist speculates: An anthology of partly-baked ideas , Capricorn Books
- Osteyee, David Bridston; Good, Irving John (1974), Information, Weight of Evidence: The Singularity Between Probability and Signal Detection , Springer, ISBN 978-3-540-06726-9
- Good, Irving John (2009) , Good Thinking: The Foundations of Probability and Its Applications , of Minnesota Press (Republished by Dover), ISBN 978-0486474380
- Good-Turing frequency estimate
- Cryptanalysis of the Enigma
- MacMahon Master theorem
- Jump up^ “Passings” . Los Angeles Times . April 13, 2009 . Retrieved 13 April2009 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b c The Times of 16-Apr-09, http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/comment/obituaries/article6100314.ece(subscription required)
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j Dan van der Vat (29 April 2009), “Jack Good” (obituary) , The Guardian , p. 32 , retrieved 9 October 2013
- Jump up^ Barrow-Green, June. “A corrective to the spirit of pure mathematics”: Robert Smith (1689-1768) and his prizes at Cambridge University. Annals of science 56.3 (1999): 271-316.
- Jump up^ Hugh Sebag-Montefiore,Enigma: The Battle for the Code, p. 189.
- Jump up^ Notes Chess 4034. The code-breakersby Edward Winter; based on a report from CHESS , February 1945, p. 73.
- Jump up^ British Chess magazine , February 1945, p36
- Jump up^ “Good, Irving John” , CV , Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University , April 6 , 2009 , retrieved April 9, 2017
- Jump up^ View / Search Fellows of the ASA, accessed 2016-08-20.
- Jump up^ David Salsburg (2002), The Lady Tasting Tea: How To Revolutionize Twentieth Century Science , Macmillan, p. 222, ISBN 9781466801783 .
- Jump up^ “The interaction algorithm and practical fourier analysis,”Journal of the Royal Statistical SocietySeries B, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 361-372, 1958, addendum: ibid. 22 (2), 373-375 (1960).
- Jump up^ “The mystery of Go”,The New Scientist, January 1965, pp. 172-74.
- Jump up^ IJ Good,”Speculations Concerning the First Ultraintelligent Machine”Archived28 November 2011 at theWayback Machine. (HTML),Advances in Computers, Vol. 6, 1965.
- Jump up^ Barrat, James (2013). Our final invention: artificial intelligence and the end of the human era (First ed.). New York: St. Martin’s Press. ISBN 9780312622374 .
In the bio, playfully written in the third person, Good summarized his life’s milestones, Bletchley Park with Turing. But here’s what he wrote in 1998 about the first superintelligence, and his late-in-the-game U-turn: [The Paper] ‘Speculations Concerning the First Ultra-Intelligent Machine’ (1965). . . began: ‘The survival of man depends on the early construction of an ultra-intelligent machine.’ Those were his [Good’s] words during the Cold War, and he now suspects that ‘survival’ should be replaced by ‘extinction.’ He thinks that, because of international competition, we can not prevent the machines from taking over. He thinks we are lemmings. He also said that ‘probably Man will build the deus ex machina in his own image.’
- Jump up^ IJ Good,”The Interface Between Statistics and Philosophy of Science,”Statistical Science, Vol. 3, no. 4, 1988, pp. 386-97.
- Jump up^ http://www.vtnews.vt.edu/story.php?relyear=2009&itemno=276
- Jump up^ http://io9.com/why-a-superintelligent-machine-may-be-the-last-thing-we-1440091472
- Jump up^ Virginia Tech news release of Good’s death.