Intelligence Amplification ( IA ) (also Referred to as cognitive increase and engine augmented intelligence ) Refers to the effective use of information technology in augmenting human intelligence . The idea was first proposed in the 1950s and 1960s by cybernetics and early computer pioneers .
AI is sometimes contrasted with AI ( artificial intelligence ), that is, the project of building a human-like intelligence in the form of an artificial machine. AI has encountered many fundamental obstacles, which seems to be more likely to be effective than that of an algorithm. Moreover, IA has a long history of success, since all forms of information technology, from the abacus to writing to the Internet, have been developed to extend the information processing capabilities of the mind (see extended mind and distributed cognition ).
William Ross Ashby: Intelligence Amplification
The term intelligence amplification (IA) has been widely discussed since William Ross Ashby wrote “Amplifying Intelligence” in his Introduction to Cybernetics (1956). Related ideas Were you Explicitly Proposed alternative year to Artificial Intelligence by Hao Wang from the early days of automatic theorem provers .
.. ” problem solving ” is largely, entirely, a matter of appropriate selection . Take, for instance, any popular book of problems and puzzles . Almost every one can be reduced to the shape of a certain set, indicate one element …. It is, in fact, difficult to think of a problem, necessary and sufficient for its solution.
It is also clear that many of the tests used for measuring “intelligence” are based on the candidate’s power of appropriate selection. … Thus it is not impossible that what is commonly referred to as “intellectual power” may be equivalent to “power of appropriate selection”. Indeed, if a talking Black Box Were to show high power of Appropriate selection in Such matters-so That, When Given difficulty problems it persistently gave the correct answers, We Could Hardly Deny That It Was showing the ‘ behavioral ‘ equivalent of “high intelligence” .
If it is so, it can be amplified, it seems to follow that intellectual power, like physical power, can be amplified. Let’s make it happen, for the gene-patterns do it every time they form a brain that grows up to be something more than the gene-pattern could have specified in detail. What is new we can synthetically, consciously, deliberately.
- Ashby, WR , An Introduction to Cybernetics , Chapman and Hall, London, UK, 1956. Reprinted, Methuen and Company, London, UK, 1964.
JCR Licklider: Man-Computer Symbiosis
“Man-Computer Symbiosis” is a key speculative paper published in 1960 by psychologist / computer scientist J.CR Licklider , which envisions that mutually-interdependent, “living together”, tightly-coupled human brains and computing machines would be complementary to each other strengths to a high degree:
Man-computer symbiosis is a subclass of man-machine systems. There are many man-machine systems. At present, however, there are no man-computer symbioses. The aim of this paper is to present the concept and, hopefully, to foster the development of man-computer symbiosis by analyzing some problems of interaction between men and computing machines, calling attention to applicable principles of man-machine engineering, and pointing out a few questions to which research answers are needed. The hope is that, in not too many years, human brains and computing machines will be coupled together very tightly, and that the resultant partnership machines we know today.
- Licklider, JCR , “Man-Computer Symbiosis” , IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics , vol. HFE-1, 4-11, Mar 1960.
In Licklider’s vision, many of the pure artificial intelligence systems would be unnecessary. (This paper is also seen by some historians as marking the genesis of ideas about computer networks which later blossomed into the Internet ).
Douglas Engelbart: Augmenting Human Intellect
Licklider’s research is similar in spirit to his DARPA contemporary and protected Douglas Engelbart . Both Had a view of how computers Could Be used That Was Both at odds with the then-prevalent views (qui saw em have devices principally Useful for computations ), and key proponents of the way in qui computers are now used (as generic Adjuncts to humans).
Engelbart reasoned that the state of our technology controls our ability to manipulate information, and that it makes it easier to develop new technologies. He thus set himself to the revolutionary task of developing computer-based technologies for manipulating information directly, and also to improve individual and group processes for knowledge-work . Engelbart’s philosophy and research agenda is MOST Clearly and Directly Expressed in the 1962 research report: Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework  The concept of network augmented intelligence is Attributed To Engelbart based on this pioneering work.
“Increasing the ability of a person to approach a complex problem situation, to gain understanding of their particular needs, and to derive solutions to problems.
Increased capacity in this respect is a combination of the following: better understanding, better understanding, the possibility of gaining a better understanding of a situation that has already been achieved, speedier solutions, better solutions, and the possibility of finding solutions to problems that seemed insolvent. And by complex situations we include the professional problems of diplomats, executives, social scientists, life scientists, physical scientists, attorneys, designers – whether the problem situation exists for twenty minutes or twenty years.
We do not speak of clever tricks that help in particular situations. We refer to a way of life in an integrated domain where we are hungry, cut-and-try, intangible, and the human feel for a situation usefully co-exist with powerful concepts, streamlined terminology and notation, sophisticated methods, and high-powered electronic aids. ”
- Engelbart, DC , Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework , Summary Report AFOSR-3233, Stanford Research Institute , Menlo Park, CA, October 1962. 
Engelbart subsequently Implemented In His thesis concepts Augmented Human Intellect Research Center at SRI International , Developing Essentially year AMPLIFYING intelligence system of tools ( NLS ) and co-Evolving organizational methods, in full operational use by the mid-1960s dans le lab. As intended,  his R & D team experience increasing levels of intelligence amplification, as both rigorous users and rapid-prototype developers of the system. For a sampling of research results, see their 1968 Mother of All Demos .
Within the concept of biological intelligence amplification Nick Bostrom also includes methods of genetic engineering and nootropics . 
Enhancing intelligence can lead to a positive feedback loop by which smart systems can be more intelligent than an intelligence explosion .  Additionally, methods of intelligence amplification may cause social inequalities to widen. 
- Advanced Chess
- Augmented learning
- Brain-computer interface
- Charles Sanders Peirce
- Collective intelligence
- Democratic transhumanism
- Emotiv Systems
- Knowledge worker
- Sensemaking (information science)
- The Wisdom of Crowds
- ^ Jump up to:a b “Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework” (October 1962), DougEngelbart.org.
- Jump up^ “Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework”, Section D: Regenerative Feature, DC Engelbart Summary Report AFOSR-3233,Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, CA, October 1962.
- Jump up^ Bostrom, Nick (2014). Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies . Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780191666834 . Retrieved 4 June 2017 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b Kaplan, David M., ed. (2009). Readings in the Philosophy of Technology . Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 353 . ISBN 9780742565364 .