Man-Computer Symbiosis

” Man-Computer Symbiosis ” is the title of a work by JCR Licklider , which was published during the year 1960. [1] [2] [3]


See also: Symbiosis and History of the Internet § Inspiration

Man-computer symbiosis is a fundamental or key text of the modern computing revolution . [4]

The work describes something of Lickliders’ vision for a complementary ( symbiotic ) relationship between humans and computers at a potential time of the future . According to Bardini , Licklider envisioned a future time when machine cognition ( cerebration ) would surpass and become independent of human direction, as a basic course of development within human evolution . Jacucci gives the description of Lickliders’ vision as being the very tight coupling of human brains and computing machines (see brain , the term cohesionand the general definitions of the term coupling ). [3] [5]

As a necessary pre-requisite of human-computer symbiosis, Licklider conceived of a thing known as the Thinking center . Altogether these things were pre-conditions for the development of networks . [6] [7]

Streeter identified as the main empirical element of the workflow and motion analysis , which is shown under Part 3 of the work. In addition he APPROBATION two Reasons for Licklider to-have regarded Such a concept as a symbiotic human computer relationship at all as beneficial, to be Firstly, for it might bring about an advantage emerging from the use of a computer, Such That There are Similarities with the necessary methodology of such a use (ie trial and error ), to the methodology of problem solving through play , and secondarily, because of the advantage which results from using computers in situations of battle . [4] Foster states Licklider sought to promote computer use in: [8]

increase human intellect by freeing it from mundane

As his personal motivating force, Streeter considers Licklider to be positing an escape from the limitations of the mode of computer use during his time, which was batch processing . Russell Licklider thinkers were stimulated by an encounter with the newly developed PDP-1 . [4] [9]

Parts of the work

The work shows the following contents: [2]

Part 1

Part 1 is titled Introduction and has 2 sub-headings, Symbiosis (part 1.1) and Between “Mechanically Extended Man” and “Artificial Intelligence” (part 1.2).

Part 1.1 begins by showing a definition of the term symbiosis using the illustration of the relationship between two organisms, a fig-tree , and its pollinator , a type of fig-wasp . [10] [11] The Article continuing to sub-classify the concept of a symbiotic relationship entre humans and computers dans le larger defined thing qui is the relationship entre men and machinery Generally ( man machine systems ), and outlines the intentions of ict author in the possibility of a relationship for the benefit of human thinking .

Part 1.2 references JD North [12] ‘s, “The rational behavior of mechanically extended man” to begin with a brief discussion on mechanics and future developments within artificial intelligence .

Part 2

Part 2 is titled Aims of Man-Computer Symbiosis .

Part 3

Part 3 is titled Need for Computer Participation in Formulativeness and Real-Time Thinking and Continuing on a Forward Statement on the Likelihood of Data-Processing Machines Improving Human Thinking and Problem Solving. This paper is a part of an investigation of the subject of subdirective research in the field of technical analysis , in which Licklider investigated his own activities during the spring and summer of 1957. definition of the term computer , as a large class of calculating, data-processing, and information storage-and-retrieval machines (cf Information storageand retrieval ) .Licklider begins with a comparison between the so-called genotypic similarities between humans and computers, in the seventh passage of this part, with a definition of men as:

noisy, narrow-band devices, but their nervous systems

and ends with the acknowledgment of differences entre inherent processing speed and use of language .

Part 4

Part 4 is titled Separable Functions of Men and Computers in the Anticipated Symbiotic Association . Licklider in the first passage of this part makes reference to the SAGE System . The text continues to identify ways in which theoretically to interpolate , extrapolate , convert static equations or logical statements into dynamic models (see also conceptual models ). The part concludes with a statement of the functioning of a potential computer as performing diagnosis , pattern-matching , and relevance-recognizing.

Part 5

Part 5 is the final part of the article and is titled Prerequisites for Realization of Man-Computer Symbiosis . It has five sub-headings, Speed ​​Mismatch Between Men and Computers, Memory Hardware Requirements, Memory Organization Requirements, The Language Problem , and Input and Output Equipment.

Part 5.3. mention the concept of trie memory ( E. Fredkin , “Trie memory,” Communications of the ACM , Sept. 1960 ).

Part 5.4. INITIALLY by Begins Demonstrating the differences entre human language and computer language , in the lath looks Especially to FORTRAN , an information processing language APPROBATION by JC Shaw, A. Newell, HA Simon, and Ellis TO (in A command structure for complex information processing, proc. WJCC , pp 119-128, May 1958. ), ALGOL ( and related systems ), and continuous from the second passage from the statement:

instructions directed to computers specify courses; instructions-directed to human beings

particularly recognizing the existence of human goals (see also Goal orientation ).

References of Man-Computer Symbiosis

The work references 26 studies, of which fourteen are concerning acoustic studies and related areas of investigation, and fifteen on computing and studies related to this subject, including four related to studies on the subject of chess .

IRE Transactions

See also: IEEE , Cybernetics & Human-machine system

Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) Transactions , Systems, and Cybernetics: Systems, IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics , and IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems . [13] [14]

Later developments

During August 1962, Licklider and Welden Clark joined the published On-Line Man-Computer Communication . [15]

MIT published a paper during 1966, written by W. Teitelman , entitled Pilot: A Step Towards Man-Computer Symbiosis . [16]

At the time of the publication of a paper, during 2004, there were many known applications of the authors, which exhibited the qualities of computers identified by Licklider within his 1960 article, of being human-like with respect for being collaborative and possessing the ability to communicate in human like ways. As part of their paper, the authors (N Lesh et al ) mention a discussion of prototypes under development by the Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories . [17]

See also

  • Darwin among the Machines
  • Electronics
  • Douglas Engelbart
  • GOAL agent programming language
  • Human factors integration
  • Intelligence amplification


  1. Jump up^ T. Messbarger-Short-Biography of Licklider JCRpublished by Ohio University [Retrieved 2015-08-08]
  2. ^ Jump up to:b J. CR Licklider. Man-Computer Symbiosis, IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics, volume HFE-1, pages 4-11, March 1960 . MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory . Retrieved 2015-08-08 .
  3. ^ Jump up to:b G. Jacucci. Symbiotic Interaction: Third International Workshop, Symbiotic 2014, Helsinki, Finland, October 30-31, 2014, Proceedings . Springer 5 Dec 2014, 145 pages, (G. Jacucci, Gamberini L., J. Freeman, A. Spagnolli), ISBN  3319135007 , Volume 8820 of Reading Notes in Computer Science / Information Systems and Applications, incl. Internet / Web, and HCI . Retrieved 2015-08-08 .
  4. ^ Jump up to:c T. Streeter. The Net Effect: Romanticism, Capitalism, and the Internet (p.32-34) . NYU Press 2011, 219 pages, ISBN  0814741169 , Critical Cultural Communication . Retrieved 2015-08-08 .
  5. Jump up^ T. Bardini -Bootstrapping: Douglas Engelbart, Coevolution, and the Origins of Personal ComputingStanford University Press 2000, 284 pages,ISBN 0804738718[Retrieved 2015-08-08]
  6. Jump up^ UV Riss. Philosophy, Computing and Information Science . Routledge 22 Jul 2015, 304 pages, ISBN  1317317564 , HISTORY and PHILOSOPHY of Technoscience . Retrieved 2015-08-08 .
  7. Jump up^ K. Fuchs-Kittowski -Social Information: An Information Society for All? In Remembrance of Rob Kling: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Human Choice and Computers (HCC7), IFIP TC 9, Maribor, Slovenia, September 21-23, 2006 (p.436)publishedSpringer15 Jan. 2007, 490 pages ( editors – J. Berleur, Nurminen MI, J. Impagliazzo),ISBN 0387378766,Volume 223 of IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology[Retrieved 2015-08-08]
  8. Jump up^ I. Foster – Symbiosis Human-Machine, 50 Years On Computational Institute, Argonne National Laboratory Laboratory of Computer Science, University of Chicago [Retrieved 2015-08-12]
  9. Jump up^ AL Russell. Open Standards and the Digital Age . Cambridge University Press 28 Apr. 2014, 326 pages, ISBN  1107039193 , Cambridge Studies in the Emergence of Global Enterprise . Retrieved 2015-08-15 .
  10. Jump up^ Blastophaga Merriam-Webster [Retrieved 2015-08-08]
  11. Jump up^ En-Wei Tian, ​​Hui Yu, Zhang Da-Yong and John D. Nason – Development of microsatellite loci for Blastophaga javana (Agaonidae), the pollinating wasp of Ficus hirta (Moraceae) published by American Journal of Botany (Am. J. Bot February 2011 Volume 98 No. 2 e41-e43), ajb.1000432v198 / 2 / e41 (AJB Primer Notes & Protocols in the Plant Sciences) [Retrieved 2015-08-08]
  12. Jump up^ JD North, “The rational behavior of mechanically extended man” Boulton Paul Aircraft Ltd., Wolverhampton, Eng .; September, 1954.
  13. Jump up^ TK Tomasello. A Content Analysis of Citations to Licklider’s JCR’s “Man-Computer Symbiosis,” 1960-2001: Diffusing the Intergalactic Network . Published by Florida State University March 15th, 2004Electronic Theses, Treatises and Dissertations. Paper 1285 . Retrieved 2015-08-13 .
  14. Jump up^ Human Factors in Electronics, IRE Transactions on[Retrieved 2015-08-08]
  15. Jump up^ Licklider JCR and Clark Welden (August 1962). “On-Line Man-Computer Communication” (PDF) . AIEE-IRE ’62 (Spring) : 113-128.
  16. Jump up^ PILOT: A STEP TOWARDS MAN-COMPUTER SYMBIOSISMassachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA, USA 1966 [Retrieved 2015-08-13]
  17. Jump up^ N LESH; J MARKS; C RICH; CL SIDNER. “Man-Computer Symbiosis” Revisited: Achieving Natural Communication and Collaboration with Computers (Vol. E87-D No.6 pp.1290-1298) . published 2004/06/01 . Retrieved 2015-08-08 .

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