Outline of transhumanism

Transhumanism – international intellectual and cultural movement That affirms the possibility and desirability of Fundamentally transforming the human requirement by Developing and making Widely available technology to Eliminate aging and to Greatly Enhance human intellectual, physical, psychological and Capacities. [1] Transhumanist thinkers study the potential benefits and risks of emerging and hypothetical Technologies That Could Overcome Fundamental human limitations, as well as study the ethical matters Involved in Developing and using Such technologies. [1]They predict That May Eventually Human Beings to be reliably transformed into Beings with Themselves Such Greatly expanded abilities as to merit the label ” posthuman “. [1]

Classification of transhumanism

Transhumanism can be described as follows:

  • Branch of philosophy – study of general and Fundamental problems, Such As Those connected with reality, existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
    • The branch of humanism – philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism, empiricism) over established doctrine or faith (fideism). In modern times, humanist movements are typically aligned with secularism, and today “Humanism” refers to a non-theistic life stance centred on human agency [2] According to Max More: “Transhumanism shares many elements of humanism, including a respect for reason and science, a commitment to progress, and a valuation of human (or transhuman) existence in this life. […] Transhumanism differs from humanism in recognizing and anticipating the radical alterations in the nature and possibilities of our lives resulting from various sciences and technologies. “
  • Life stance – one ‘s relationship with what they accept as being of ultimate importance . It involves the presuppositions and theories on which such a stance could be made, a belief system , and a commitment to working in one’s life. [3]
  • Social movement – type of group action. Large, sometimes informal, grouping of individuals or organizations which focus on specific political or social issues. In other words, members of a social movement carry out, resist or undo a social change.
  • World view – fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the entirety of the individual or society’s knowledge and point of view . A world view can include natural philosophy; fundamental, existential, and normative postulates; or themes, values, emotions, and ethics. [4] It is the framework of ideas and beliefs forming a global description through which an individual, group or culture and interprets the world and interacts with it.

Transhumanist values


Neophilia – strong affinity for novelty and change. Transhumanist neophiliac values ​​include:

  • Posthumanism – desire to become posthuman .
  • Proactionary principle – ethical and decision-making principle formulated by the transhumanist philosopher Max More, pertaining to people’s freedom to innovate, and the value of protecting that freedom.
  • Singularitarianism – a technocentric ideology and social movement defined by the belief that a singularity-the creation of a superintelligence-will likely happen in the future medium, and that deliberate action should be taken to ensure that the Singularity benefits humans.
  • Technophilia – strong enthusiasm for technology, especially new technologies, Internet, mobile phones and home cinema. The term is used in sociology when examining the interaction of individuals with their society, especially contrasted with technophobia.


Survival – survival, or self-preservation, is behavior that ensures the survival of an organism. [5] It is almost universal among living organisms. Humans differ from other animals in that they use technology extensively to improve chances of survival and increase life expectancy .

  • Global catastrophic risk – hypothetical future event with the potential to inflict serious damage to human well-being on a global scale. Some such events could destroy or cripple modern civilization. Other, even more severe, threatening scenarios permanent human extinction. In transhumanist thought, the risks of being avoided, with the notable exception of the singularity.
  • Human extinction – end of the species Homo sapiens sapiens . Usually considered bad. Such opinions are likely to be determined by such progeny species or entities, such as posthumans or strong AI. If there are posthumans, people would not be extinct, just their human predecessors. If all that remained strong, sentience would not be extinct, just biological sentience.
  • Longevity – the length of one’s life
    • Immortality – unable to die or be killed, which scientifically speaking is theoretically impossible. Is related to immortality , which refers to the forms of life that are immune to the effects of aging, which are not immortal in the general sense. It is not yet known that it is possible for humans.
    • Indefinite lifespan – hypothetical longevity of humans (and other life-forms) Their lifespans would be “indefinite”, because they would not survive (from accidents, natural disasters, war, etc.).
    • Rejuvenation – distinct from life extension. Life extension strategies often study the causes of aging and try to oppose those causes in order to slow aging. Rejuvenation is the reversal of aging and thus requires a different strategy, namely repair of the damage that is associated with aging or replacement of damaged tissue with new tissue. Rejuvenation can be a way of life extension, but most life extension strategies do not involve rejuvenation.

Transhumanist ideologies

Main article: Transhumanism § Currents
  • Extropianism – Early school of transhumanism. A proactive approach to human evolution. [6] It is an evolving framework of values ​​and standards for the improvement of the human condition. Extropians believe that advances in science and technology will some day let people live indefinitely. An extropian may wish to contribute to this goal, eg by doing research and development or volunteering to test new technology.
  • Immortalism – moral ideology based upon the belief That technological immortality is possible, and desirable, and Advocating research and development to Ensure icts realization. [7]
  • Postgenderism – social ideology which, although not currently possible, seeks the voluntary elimination of gender in the human species through the application of advanced biotechnology and assisted reproductive technologies . [8]
  • Singularitarianism – moral ideology based upon the belief That a technological singularity is possible, and Advocating deliberate actions to affect it and ict Ensure safety. [9]
  • Technogenicism – ecological ideology based on the belief that emerging technologies can help restore Earth’s environment, and that developing safe, clean , alternative technology should be an important goal of environmentalists . [10]

Transhumanist politics

Transhumanist politics

  • Democratic transhumanism – political philosophy liberal liberalization , social democracy , radical democracy and transhumanism. [11]
  • Libertarian transhumanism – political philosophy synthesizing libertarian capitalism and transhumanism. [12]

Transhumanist rights

  • Cognitive liberty – freedom of sovereign control over one’s own consciousness. It is an extension of the concepts of freedom of thought and self-ownership.
  • Morphological Freedom – proposed civil right of a person to Maintain Either or modify his or her own body , is his or her own terms, through Informed, consensual recourse to, or refusal of, available therapeutic gold Enabling medical technology . [13]

History of transhumanism

The term “transhumanism” was first coined in 1957 by Sir Julian Huxley , a zoologist and prominent humanist . [14]

  • Preludes to transhumanism
    • Renaissance humanism – cultural and educational reform during the fourteenth and beginning of the fifteenth centuries, as a response to the challenge of Mediæval scholastic education, emphasizing practical, pre-professional and -scientific studies. Rather than train professionals in a jargon and strict practice, humanists sought to create a citizenry (able to speak with eloquence and clarity).
    • Age of Enlightenment – elite cultural movement of intellectuals in 18th century Europe that seeks to mobilize the power of reason in order to reform society and advance knowledge. It promoted intellectual interchange and opposed intolerance and abuse in church and state.
    • Russian cosmism – past philosophical and cultural movement that emerged in Russia in the early 20th century. It is a broad theory of natural philosophy, combining elements of religion and ethics with a history and philosophy of the origin, evolution and future existence of the cosmos, and an expanding role of humankind within it.
  • Emergence of transhumanism

Current events

  • Human condition – the irreducible part of humanity that is inherent and not connected to gender, race, class, etc .; the experiences of being human in a social, cultural, and personal context. Transhumanism aims to radically improve the human condition. The present human condition is highly technical, and is becoming more so.
  • Noosphere – “sphere of human thought”. [15] In the original theory of Vernadsky , the noosphere (sentience) is the third in a succession of phases of development of the Earth, partner after the geosphere (inanimate matter) and the biosphere (biological life). The noosphere includes the endeavor.
  • Technological change – overall process of invention, innovation and diffusion of technology (including processes).
    • Rate of change
      • Increasing Accelerating Change in the Spectrum of Temperance (and sometimes Social and Cultural) Progress in History. While many have suggested accelerating change, Vernier Vinge and Ray Kurzweil.
        • Moore’s law – the observation that, over the history of computing hardware, the number of transistors on integrated circuits doubles every two years. The law is named after Intel co-founder Gordon E. Moore, who described the trend in his 1965 paper.
    • Management of change
      • Differentiation in the field of development – strategy proposed by transhumanist Nick Bostrom in which societies would seek to influence the sequence in which emerging technologies developed. On this approach, societies would have to delay the development of harmful technologies and their applications, while accelerating the development of beneficial technologies, especially those that offer protection against the harmful ones.
    • Influences on changes
      • Ideologies
        • Innovation economics – growing economic theory that emphasizes entrepreneurship and innovation. Innovation economics is based on two fundamental tenets: that the central goal of economic policy should be higher productivity, and that markets will be more effective economic growth.
        • Singularitarianism – a technocentric ideology and social movement defined by the belief that a singularity (TS), that is, the creation of a superintelligence, will likely happen in the future medium, and that deliberate action should be taken to ensure that the Singularity benefits humans. Singularitarians endeavor to bring about the TS.
      • Innovation – application of new solutions, new requirements, new requirements or new market needs. This is accomplished through more effective products, processes, services, technologies, or ideas that are available to markets, governments and society.

Human enhancement technologies

Human enhancement technologies

in biology

  • Do-it-yourself biology
  • Biohacking
    • Wetware (brain)
  • Dietary supplement

in genetics

  • Genetic engineering
    • Genome engineering
    • Genome editing
    • CRISPR
  • Preimplantation genetic diagnosis
  • Designer baby
  • Liberal eugenics
  • Directed evolution

related-to aging

  • Anti-aging movement
    • Aubrey from Gray
  • Life extension
    • Index of topics related to life extension
    • Outline of life extension


  • neuroenhancement
  • Neurohacking
  • Intelligence amplification
  • Brain-computer interface
    • Brain implant
    • cyberware
  • Neuroprosthetics
  • Neuroinformatics
  • nootropic
    • modafinil
  • Artificial intelligence
  • Exocortex


  • Augmented reality
    • Smartglasses
    • Mixed reality
  • Artificial intelligence
  • Exocortex
  • Computers
    • Smartphones
  • Wearable computer
  • Internet


  • Prosthetics
  • Implant (medicine)
  • Artificial organ

Emerging technologies of interest to transhumanists

See also: List of emerging technologies

Emerging technologies – contemporary advances and innovation in various fields of technology, prior to gold Early In Their dissemination . They are typically in the form of a progressive competitive advantage. [16] Transhumanists believe that humans can and should use technologies to become more than human . Emerging technologies offer the greatest potential in doing so. Examples of developing technologies that have become the focus of transhumanism include:

  • Anti-aging – another term for “life extension”.
  • Artificial intelligence – intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it. AI textbooks define the field as “the study and design of intelligent agents”, [17] where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success. John McCarthy , who coined the term in 1956, defines it as “the science and engineering of making intelligent machines.” [18]
  • Augmented reality – live, direct or indirect, view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented by computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data. It is a general concept called mediated reality, in which a view of reality is modified by a computer. As a result, the technology functions by enhancing one’s current perception of reality. By contrast, virtual reality replaces the real world with a simulated one.
  • Biomedical engineering – application of engineering principles and design concepts to biology and medicine, to improve healthcare diagnosis, monitoring and therapy. [19] Applications include the development of biocompatible prostheses, clinical equipment, micro-implants, imaging equipment and MRIs and EEGs, regenerative tissue growth, pharmaceutical drugs and therapeutic biologicals.
    • Neural engineering – discipline that uses engineering techniques to understand, repair, replace, enhance, or otherwise exploit the properties of neural systems. Neural engineers are uniquely qualified to design problems at the interface of living neural tissue and non-living constructs. Also known as “neuroengineering”.
      • Neurohacking – colloquial term encompassing all methods of manipulating or interfering with the structure and / or function of neurons for improvement.
  • Biotechnology – field of applied biology that uses living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering, technology, medicine, and manufacturing, among other fields. It encompasses a wide range of procedures for modifying living organisms for human purposes. Early examples of biotechnology include domestication of animals, cultivation of plants, and breeding through artificial selection and hybridization.
    • Bionics – in medicine, this refers to the replacement or enhancement of organs or other parts by mechanical versions. Bionic implants differ from mere prostheses by mimicking the original function very closely, or even surpassing it.
      • Cyborg – being with both biological and artificial (eg electronic, mechanical or robotic) parts.
    • Brain-computer interface – direct communication pathway between the brain and an external device. BCIs are under development to assist, augment, or repair human cognitive and sensory-motor functions. Sometimes called a direct neural interface or a brain-machine interface (BMI).
    • Cloning – in biotechnology, this refers to processes for creating copies of DNA fragments (molecular cloning), cells (cell cloning), or organisms.
      • Therapeutic cloning – application of somatic cell nuclear transfer (a technical laboratory for creating a clonal embryo using an ovum with a donor nucleus) in regenerative medicine .
  • Cognitive science – interdisciplinary scientific study of mind and processes. It examines what cognition is, what it does and how it works. It is processed (in faculties such as perception, language, memory, reasoning, and emotion), represented, and transformed in behavior, (human or other animal) nervous system or machine (eg, computer). It includes research on artificial intelligence.
  • Computer-mediated reality – ability to add to, subtract information from, or otherwise manipulate one’s perception of reality through the use of a wearable computer or hand-held device [20] such as a smart phone.
  • Cryonics – low-temperature preservation of humans and animals who can not survive in the future, with the hope that healing and resuscitation may be possible in the future. Cryopreservation of people is not reversible with current technology.
  • Cyberware – hardware or machine parts implanted in the human body and acting as an interface between the central nervous system and the computers or machinery connected to it. Research in this area is a protoscience.
  • Head-mounted display (HMD) – display device, which has a small display optic in front of one (monocular HMD) or each eye (binocular HMD).
  • Human enhancement technologies (HET) – techniques used to treat illness or disability, or to enhance human characteristics and capacities. [21]
  • Human genetic engineering – alteration of an individual’s genotype with the aim of choosing the phenotype of a newborn or changing the existing phenotype of a child or adult. [22]
  • Human-machine interface – the part of a machine that handles its human-machine interaction.
  • Information technology – acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of speech, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications. [23]
    • The Internet of Autonomous Things – the evolution of the world of the environment and the environment. An expected evolution of the Internet of things .
  • Life extension – study of slowing down or reversing the processes of aging to the maximum and the average lifespan. Some researchers in this area, and those who wish to achieve longer lives for themselves (called “life extensionists” or “longevists”), expect that future breakthroughs in tissue rejuvenation with stem cells, molecular repair, and organ replacement (such as with artificial Xenotransplantations) will eventually enable humans to live indefinitely (agerasia [24] ) through complete rejuvenation to a healthy youthful condition. Also known as anti-aging medicine, experimental gerontology, and biomedical gerontology.
  • Nanotechnology – a study of nanoscale nanoscale, dealing with objects measured in nanometers, billionths of a meter. The development of microscopic or molecular machines.
  • Nootropics – drugs, supplements, nutraceuticals, and functional foods that improve mental functions such as cognition, memory, intelligence, motivation, attention, and concentration. [25] [26] Also referred to as “smart drugs”, “brain steroids”, “memory enhancers”, “cognitive enhancers”, “brain boosters”, and “intelligence enhancers”.
  • Organ transplants – moving of an organ of a body to another body or a donor site on the patient’s own body, for the purpose of replacing the organism or missing organ. The emerging field of regenerative medicine is allowing scientists and engineers to create organs to be re-grown from the patient’s own cells (stem cells, or cells extracted from the failing organs).
    • Autograft – organs and / or tissues that are transplanted within the same person’s body.
    • Allograft – transplants that are performed between two subjects of the same species.
    • Xenograft – living cells, tissues or organs transplanted from one species to another.
  • Personal communicators – Around 1990 the next generation of digital mobile phones were called digital personal communicators. Another definition, coined in 1991, is a function of a wireless network. These devices are now commonly referred to as smartphones or wireless PDAs.
  • Personal development – includes activities that enhance awareness and identity, develop talent and potential, build human capital and facilitate employability, enhance quality of life and contribute to the realization of dreams and aspirations. The concept is not limited to self-help, but includes formal and informal activities for developing others, such as teacher, guide, counselor, manager, coach, or mentor. Finally, it takes place in the context of institutions, it refers to the methods, programs, tools, techniques, and assessment systems that support human development and the individual level in organizations. [27]
  • Powered exoskeleton – powered mobile machine comes from an exoskeleton-like framework powered by a person and a power supply that supplies at least part of the activation-energy for limb movement. Also known as “powered armor”, or “exoframe”.
  • Prosthetics – artificial device extensions
  • Robotics – design, construction, operation, structural layout, manufacture and application of robots. It draws heavily upon electronics, engineering, mechanics, mechatronics, and software engineering.
    • Autonomous Things (also the “Internet of Autonomous Things”) – emerging term [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] for the technological Developments That are expected to bring computers into the physical environment as autonomous entities without human management , freely moving and interacting with humans and other objects.
    • Swarm robotics –
  • Simulated reality –
  • Suspended animation – slowing of life processes Breathing, heartbeat, and other involuntary functions may still occur, but they can only be detected by artificial means. Extreme cold can be used to precipitate the slowing of an individual’s functions. For example, Laina Beasley was kept in motion animation as a two-celled embryo for 13 years. [33] [34]
  • Virtual retinal display – display technology that draws a raster display (like a television) directly onto the retina of the eye. Users see what appears to be a conventional floating in space in front of them.

Technological evolution

Technological evolution –

  • Directed evolution –
  • Extropy – opposing concept of entropy. It poses that culture and technology will help the universe in developing an orderly progressive manner. So extropy is the tendency of systems to grow more organized.
  • Intelligence explosion – possible outcome of humanity building artificial general intelligence (AGI), and hypothesis a direct result of such a singularity, in that AGI would be capable of recursive self-improvement of artificial emergence of ASI (artificial superintelligence), the limits of which are unknown.
  • Megatrajectory – theoretical concept in evolutionary biology that describes paradigmatic developmental stages (major evolutionary milestones) and potential directionality in the evolution of life . A theorized megatrajectory that has not occurred yet is postbiological evolution triggered by the emergence of strong AI and several other similarly complex technologies.
  • Participant evolution – process of deliberate redesigning the human body and brain using the means of substitution, with the goal of removing “biological limitations.”
    • Liberal eugenics – utilization of reproductive technologies and genetic technologies, where the choice of enhancing and the ability of the patient is more important.
      • Procreative beneficence –
      • Procreative liberty –
  • Posthumanity – all persons technologically evolved from humans. Post humanity might include:
    • Posthumans [35] – in transhumanism, They Are hypothetical future Beings “whose basic Capacities so Radically Exceed Those of present humans as to be no follow unambiguously human by our current standards.” [35] A being technologically evolved from humans.
      • Superhumans – humans with extraordinary capabilities and possibilities of accomplishment. Superhuman can mean an improved human, for example, by genetic modification, cybernetic implants, nanotechnology, or as humans might eventually evolve into millions of years later into the distant future.
        • Posthuman Gods – posthuman, being no longer confined to the parameters of human nature, mighty growers and mentally powerful to god-like by standard. [35]
        • Übermensch – concept of the superhuman in the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche . Nietzsche had his character Zarathustra posit the Übermensch as a goal for humanity to set for itself in his 1883 novel Thus Spoke Zarathustra (German: Also Sprach Zarathustra).
  • Sociocultural Evolution from a technological perspective – evolution transitioning from one basis to new forms, Such As Evolution through biology, Then through cognition, Then through culture, through technology Then, Including the possibility of a merger entre biology and technology.
  • Technological convergence – tendency for different technologies to evolve towards performing similar tasks. Convergence can, data and productivity applications, and video conferencing, and interaction with each other synergistically.
    • NBIC – acronym signifying the converging of N anotechnology , B iotechnology , I nformation technology and C ognitive science
    • GNR – acronym that denotes the converging technologies of G enetics , N anotechnology , and R obotics . [36]
  • Technological singularity (TS) – hypothetical future emergence of superintelligence This could be Achieved through the development of artificial intelligence as smart as humans ( strong AI). Once computers become capable as humans, they would be recursive, that is, they could improve themselves through redesign and modification. They could also conceivably mass-produce successively more capable models of artificially intelligent computers and robots. Another road could be achieved through the fusion of a human and a computer, resulting in a rapid recursive improvement. Therefore, the specificity is seen as an intellectual event horizon, beyond which the future becomes difficult to forecast. Nevertheless, proponents of the singularity typically anticipate an “intelligence explosion”, leading rapidly to the development of superintelligence, and resulting in technological change so that it would not be possible to keep up with it.
    • Promise
      • Friendly artificial intelligence – if the civilization of the human race is more important than the development of the human race. come to an abrupt end.
      • Utopia – see Utopia , below
    • Danger
      • AI takeover – upon its emergence, artificial general intelligence can quickly become the dominant form of intelligence on Earth
      • Existential risk from artificial general intelligence – In this case, it is possible to understand the existence of an earthquake. See also Survival , above
        • Artificial general intelligence § Risk of human extinction
        • Effective altruism § Far future and global catastrophic risks
        • Global catastrophic risk § Artificial intelligence
        • Intelligence explosion § Existential risk
        • Recursive self-improvement
        • Roboethics § In popular culture
        • Self-replicating spacecraft
        • Stephen Hawking § With regard to Artificial Intelligence
        • Superintelligence § Potential danger to human survival
          • Nick Bostrom § Superintelligence
            • Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies
        • Technological singularity § Uncertainty and risk
        • Transhumanism § Existential risks
  • Utopia – an idyllic society, one of the goals of transhumanism.
    • Techno-utopia – hypothetical ideal society, in which laws, government, and social conditions are only operating for the benefit and well-being of its citizens, set in the near-or far-future, when advanced science and technology will allow these theses ideal living standards to exist; for example, post scarcity, transformations in human nature, the abolition of suffering and the end of death.
    • Techno-utopianism – any ideology based on the belief that advances in science and technology will ultimately bring about a utopia, or at least help to fulfill one or another utopian ideal.
  • Omega Point – term coined by the French Jesuit Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881-1955) to describe a maximum level of complexity and consciousness Towards qui he Believed The Universe Was Evolving.

Hypothetical technologies

Hypothetical technology – technology that does not exist yet, but the development of which could be achieved in the future. It is distinct from an emerging technology, which has achieved some developmental success. A hypothetical technology is typically not proven to be impossible. Many hypothetical technologies have been the subject of science fiction.

  • Artificial general intelligence – hypothetical artificial intelligence that demonstrates human-like intelligence – the intelligence of a machine that can successfully perform It is a primary goal of artificial intelligence research and an important topic for science fiction writers and futurists. Artificial general intelligence is also referred to as AI , [37] full AI [38] or as the ability to perform “general intelligent action”. [39] Strong AI is the focus and hypothesized cause of the singularity.
    • Friendly artificial intelligence (AI) that has a positive rather than negative effect on humanity. Friendly AI also refers to the field of knowledge required to such an AI. AI can be harmful to humans if steps are not taken to specifically design them to be benevolent. Doing so is the primary goal of Friendly AI.
  • Designer babies – babies Whose genetic makeup has-been artificially selected by genetic engineering combined with in vitro fertilization to Ensure the presence or lack of Particular genes or characteristics. [40]
  • Human cloning – creation of a genetically identical copy of a human. It does not usually refer to monozygotic multiple births nor the reproduction of human cells or tissue. The term is used to refer to artificial human cloning; human clones in the form of the common twins are commonplace, with their cloning during the natural process of reproduction.
  • Mind uploading – hypothetical process of transferring or copying a biological brain by a brain to a non-biological substrate by scanning and mapping to a biological brain in detail and copying its state to a computer system or another computational device. The computer would have to run a simulation model so that it would be essentially identical to the original brain, or indistinguishably. [41]
  • Molecular nanotechnology – technology based on the ability to build structures to complex, atomic specifications by means of mechanosynthesis. [42]
    • Molecular assemblers – as defined by K. Eric Drexler, is a “proposed device able to guide chemical reactions by positioning reactive molecules with atomic precision”. RNA and then binds this definition, because they receive instructions from RNA and then assembles specific sequences of amino acids to construct protein molecules. However, the term “molecular assembler” usually refers to theoretical human-made devices. [43]
  • Rejuvenation – reversal of aging, which involves the repair of the damage associated with aging, or replacement of damaged tissue with new tissue. Rejuvenation can be a way of life extension, but most life extension strategies do not involve rejuvenation.
  • Reprogenetics – merging of reproductive and genetic technologies expected to happen in the near future as technologies like germinal choice technology Become More Powerful and more available.
  • Self-replicating machine – self-replicating machine – self-replicating machine – self-replicating machine
  • Space colonization – concept of standing human habitation outside of Earth. Although hypothetical at the present time, there are many propositions and speculations about the first space colony. It is a long-term goal of some national space programs. Also called “space settlement”, “space humanization”, and “space habitation”.
  • Superintelligence – hypothetical agent that possesses intelligence far surpassing that of the brightest and most gifted human minds. For example, a supercomputer with mental capacity exceeding the brainpower and cognitive abilities of all the people of the Earth combined, while developing itself even further.

Related fields

  • Futures studies – study of postulating possible, probable, and preferable future and the worldviews and myths that underlie them. Also called “futurology”.

Transhumanist media

  • Transhumanist art

Documentary films about transhumanism

  • Technocalyps
  • Transcendent Man
  • The Singularity Is Near
  • Transhumanism: Recreating Humanity. Flight. I Hyperreality Series

Transhumanist books

See also: Category: Transhumanist books
  • Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance
  • The Transhumanist Reader: Classical and Contemporary Essays on the Science, Technology, and Philosophy of the Human Future , First Edition. Edited by Max and Natasha Vita-More. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Published 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Transhumanist periodicals

  • H + Magazine

Transhumanism in fiction

Transhumanism in fiction – Many of the tropes of science fiction can be viewed as similar to the goals of transhumanism. Science fiction literature contains many positivities of technologically enhanced human life, a few times in utopian (especially techno-utopian) societies. However, science fiction ‘s posthuman often poses with a cautionary twist. The more pessimistic scenarios include many dystopian tales of human bioengineering gone wrong.

Notable transhumanist authors

  • Neal Asher
  • Margaret Atwood
  • Iain M. Banks
  • Stephen Baxter
  • Greg Bear
  • Gregory Benford
  • Marshall Brain
  • David Brin
  • Dan Brown
  • Ted Chiang
  • Arthur C. Clarke
  • Philip K. Dick
  • Cory Doctorow
  • Jacek Dukaj
  • Greg Egan
  • Peter F Hamilton
  • Michel Houellebecq
  • Aldous Huxley
  • Zoltan Istvan
  • Stanisław Lem
  • Richard K. Morgan
  • Yuri Nikitin
  • Alastair Reynolds
  • John Scalzi
  • Dan Simmons
  • Olaf Stapledon
  • Charles Stross
  • John C. Wright

Television programs and movies with transhumanist themes

  • 2001: A Space Odyssey
  • The 4400
  • Akira
  • Andromeda
  • Avatar – film by James Cameron, in which a paralyzed soldier finds new life by transferring his consciousness into a genetically engineered alien body.
  • Battlestar Galactica
  • Beneath the Planet of the Apes
  • Bio Booster Armor Guyver
  • Blade Runner – movie based on the novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep , in which Blade Runners track down and “removes” replicants who have escaped to earth. Replicants are artificially created and sold as colonies and slaves.
  • Brainstorm
  • Crest of the Stars
  • Dark Angel
  • Elysium
  • Ex Machina
  • Fringe : a television show about a group of paranormal investigators who regularly deal with transhumans.
  • Gattaca
  • Ghost in the Shell
  • Her
  • Heroes
  • The Lawnmower Man
  • Limitless – movie in which a man obtains superhuman intelligence by taking a nootropic drug designer with some problematic side-effects.
  • Lucy
  • The Machine
  • The Matrix
  • The Melancholy of Haruhi Suzumiya
  • Mobile Suit Gundam
  • Neon Genesis Evangelion – Japanese animation in which the antagonist’s endgame is the reduction of all life in a living room (known as “The Human Instrumentality Project”)
  • Orphan Black
  • Prometheus
  • Robocop
  • Stargate SG-1
  • Star Trek
    • Star Trek: The Next Generation –
      • Lieutenant Commander Data – artificially intelligent synthetic life form designed, built by, and a self-likeness of, Doctor Noonien Soong. Both Data and Dr. Soong were portrayed by Brent Spiner. Data is a self-aware, sapient, sentient, and anatomically fully functional robot that serves as the second officer and chief operations officer of the Federation Starships USS Enterprise-D and USS Enterprise-E. Though an example of artificial general intelligence, Data did not implement a singularity.
  • Star Wars
  • Strange Days
  • Terminator Salvation
  • Texhnolyze
  • Transcendence
  • Tron
  • The X Files episode ” Killswitch ” – features felt artificial intelligence, created by uploading a man’s consciousness into a computer [44]

Comics or graphic novels

  • Battle Angel Alita / Gunm
  • Dresden Codak – webcomic that stars has a transhuman cyborg named Kimiko Ross who increases his body over the race of the strip stories.
  • Transmetropolitan – comic about a transhuman society in the future that includes many cyborgs, human beings, and genetically modified mutants.
  • Upgrade – satirical dystopian graphic novel by Louis Rosenberg
  • Monkey Room – satirical dystopian graphic novel by Louis Rosenberg, about humans approaching the singularity

Video games

  • BioShock – video game in which humans develop a biotechnology called “Plasmids” which grants them seemingly magical powers, including telekinesis and superhuman strength.
  • Crysis (series)
  • destiny
  • Deus Ex (series) – a main focus of the game is human increase and its effects on society
  • Half-Life 2
  • Halo
  • Metal Gear Rising: Revengeance
  • PlanetSide 2
  • Remember Me
  • Syndicate (series)
  • Total Annihilation
  • SOMA – The entire game hinges on the concept of the ability to upload a Consciousness into a computer, and explores the consequences thoroughly.

Table-top games

  • Eclipse Phase – role playing game that takes transhumanism to a post-apocalyptic horror setting in which General Artificial Intelligences have gone rogue, introducing itself with the slogan “Your mind is software. Program it. Your body is a shell. Change it. Death is a disease. Cure it. Extinction is approaching. Fight it. “
  • Transhuman Space – GURPS supplement that presents a transhumanist future set in our solar system in the year 2100.
  • Warhammer 40,000 – game and fiction franchise by Games Workshop , which depicts a universe that includes cybernetic and genetic modifications, human-machine interfaces, self-aware computer “spirits” (advanced AIs), ubiquitous space travel and posthuman gods. The main Protagonists of Many novels and campaigns, the Imperial Space Marines are literal textbook transhumans: Normal human Men Who-have-been so vastly augmented and changed by technology That They Are No follow Homo sapiens but some other, new species.

Transhumanist organizations

See also: Category: Transhumanist organizations
  • 2045 Initiative – an initiative to develop cybernetic immortality by 2045.
  • Alcor Life Extension Foundation – a nonprofit company based in Scottsdale, Arizona, USA that researches, advocates for and plays cryonics, the preservation of humans in liquid nitrogen after legal death, in the hope of restoring them to full health future.
  • American Cryonics Society
  • Cryonics Institute
  • Extropy Institute
  • Foresight Institute – a nonprofit organization based in Palo Alto, California that promotes transformative technologies. They sponsor conferences on molecular nanotechnology, publish reports, produce a newsletter, and offer several running prizes, including the annual Feynman Prizes given in experimental and theory categories, and the $ 250,000 Feynman Grand Prize for demonstrating two molecular machines capable of nanoscale positional accuracy and computation . [45]
  • Humanity + – International Non-Governmental Organization Advocates the Ethics of Emerging Technologies to Enhance Human Capabilities. It was formally named the “World Transhumanist Association”.
  • Machine Intelligence Research Institute – non-profit organization founded in 2000 (as the “Singularity Institute for Artificial Intelligence”) to develop safe artificial intelligence software, and to raise awareness of both the dangers and the potential benefits of AI presents. In their view, the potential benefits and risks of a particular problem are not as high as they are. [46] [47]
  • Mormon Transhumanist Association
  • Christian Transhumanist Association , founded 2013

Transhumanist leaders and scholars

Some people who have made a major impact on the advancement of transhumanism:

  • Nick Bostrom – Swedish philosopher at the University of Oxford, known for his work on existential risk, the anthropic principle, human enhancement ethics, superintelligence risks, the reversal test, and consequentialism.
  • K. Eric Drexler –
  • George Dvorsky –
  • Robert Ettinger –
  • Nikolai Fyodorovich Fyodorov
  • FM-2030 (October 15, 1930, – July 8, 2000) – author, teacher, transhumanist philosopher, futurist, and consultant. [48] His given name was Fereidoun M. Esfandiary. He became notable as a transhumanist with the book Are You a Transhuman ?: Monitoring and Stimulating Your Personal Rate of Growth in a Rapidly Changing World , published in 1989.
  • Aubrey de Gray – English author and theoretician in the field of gerontology, and the Chief Science Officer of the SENS Foundation . He is perhaps best known in the world, in theory, live to live in the world.
  • James Hughes – sociologist and bioethicist teaching health policy at Trinity College in Hartford, Connecticut in the United States. Hughes served as the executive director of the World Transhumanist Association (from which he has since changed its name to Humanity +) from 2004 to 2006, and moved to the position of executive director of the Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies , which he founded with Nick Bostrom .
  • Julian Huxley –
  • Raymond Kurzweil – pioneer in optical character recognition, text-to-speech synthesis, speech recognition technology, and musical synthesizer keyboard instruments. He is most notable as a public advocate for the futurist and transhumanist movements, and as Director of Engineering at Google, where he has a one-sentence job description: “to bring natural language understanding to Google”. Books He Has authored qui pertain to transhumanism include The Age of Intelligent Machines , The 10% Solution for a Healthy Life , The Age of Spiritual Machines , Fantastic Voyage: Live Long Enough to Live Forever , The Singularity Is Near , Transcend: Nine Steps to Living Well Forever ,[49] and How to Create a Mind . He co-founded the Singularity University , and is also co-founder of the Singularity Summit .
  • Hans Moravec – Adjunct faculty member at the Robotics Institute of Carnegie Mellon University. He is known for his work on robotics, artificial intelligence, and writings on the impact of technology. Moravec is also a futurist with many of its publications and predictions focusing on transhumanism. Moravec developed in computer vision for determining the region of interest (ROI) in a scene.
  • Max More – a philosopher and futurist who writes, speaks, and consults on advanced decision-making about emerging technologies
  • David Pearce – Utilitarian thinker and author of the Hedonistic Imperative , in which he explores the possibility of such technologies as genetic engineering, nanotechnology, pharmacology, and neurosurgery could potentially converge to eliminate all forms of posthuman civilization . [50]
  • Giulio Prisco –
  • Anders Sandberg – researcher, debater science, futurist, transhumanist, and author born in Solna, Sweden, whose recent contributions include work on cognitive enhancement [51] (methods, impacts, and policy analysis); a technical roadmap on a whole brain emulation ; [52] on neuroethics; and on global catastrophic risks, particularly on the question of how to take into account the risk of high-consequence risk. [53]
  • Stefan Lorenz Sorgner – philosopher who argues for a Nietzschean transhumanism
  • Frank J. Tipler –


  1. ^ Jump up to:c Bostrom, Nick (2005). “A history of transhumanism thought”(PDF) . Journal of Evolution and Technology . Retrieved 2006-02-21 .
  2. Jump up^ See for example the 2002 Humanism Issued by theInternational Humanist and Ethical Union, or theBritish Humanist Association’sdefinition of Humanism
  3. Jump up^ eg As treated in The Intentional Stance by Daniel Dennett ISBN  0-262-54053-3
  4. Jump up^ Palmer, Gary B. (1996). Toward A Theory of Cultural Linguistics . University of Texas Press. p. 114. ISBN  978-0-292-76569-6 .
  5. Jump up^ http://www.thefreedictionary.com/self-preservation
  6. Jump up^ More, Max (1990-2003). “Principles of extropy” . Retrieved 2006-02-16.
  7. Jump up^ “Immortality Institute” .
  8. Jump up^ Dvorksy, George (2008). “Postgenderism: Beyond the Gender Binary”. Retrieved 2008-04-13 .
  9. Jump up^ Kurzweil, Raymond (2005). The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology . Viking Adult. ISBN  0-670-03384-7 . OCLC  224517172 .
  10. Jump up^ Hughes, James (2004). Citizen Cyborg : Why Democratic Societies Must Respond to the Redesigned Human of the Future . Westview Press. ISBN  0-8133-4198-1 .
  11. Jump up^ Hughes, James (2002). “Democratic Transhumanism 2.0” . Retrieved 2007-01-26 .
  12. Jump up^ Hughes, James (2002). “The politics of transhumanism” . Retrieved 2006-02-26 .
  13. Jump up^ Carrico, Dale (2006). “The Politics of Morphological Freedom” . Retrieved 2007-01-28 .
  14. Jump up^ Huxley, Julian (1957). Religion Without Revelation . New American Library . Retrieved 2016-02-15 .
  15. Jump up^ Georgy S. Levit:The Biosphere and the Noosphere Theories of VI Vernadsky and P. Teilhard of Chardin: A Methodological Essay. International Archives on the History of Science / International Archives of History of Science, 50 (144) – 2000: S. 160-176
  16. Jump up^ International Congress Innovation and Technology XXI: Strategies and Policies Towards the XXI Century, & Soares, ODD (1997). Innovation and technology: Strategies and policies. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.
  17. Jump up^ Definition of AI as the study ofintelligent agents:
      • Swarm intelligence –
    • Poole, Mackworth & Goebel 1998 , p. 1 , which provides the version that is used in this article. Note that they use the term “computational intelligence” as a synonym for artificial intelligence.
    • Russell & Norvig (2003) (who prefers the term “rational agent”) and write “( Russell & Norvig 2003 : 55).
    • Nilsson 1998
  18. Jump up^ McCarthy’sdefinition of AI:
    • McCarthy 2007
  19. Jump up^ Biomedical engineerprospects
  20. Jump up^ “Wearable, Tetherless, Computer-Mediated Reality”, Technical Report # 260, MIT Medial Perceptual Computing Section, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1994
  21. Jump up^ Enhancement Technologies Group (1998). “Writings by group participants” . Retrieved 2007-02-02 .
  22. Jump up^ Singer, Peter; Kuhese, Helga. “Bioethics: An Anthology”.
  23. Jump up^ Longley, Dennis; Shain, Michael (1985), Dictionary of Information Technology (2 ed.), Macmillan Press, p. 164, ISBN  0-333-37260-3
  24. Jump up^ “agerasia” . Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press . September 2005.(Subscription or UK public library membershiprequired.)
  25. Jump up^ “Dorlands Medical Dictionary” . Archived from the original on 2008-01-30.
  26. Jump up^ C Lanni, Lenzken SC, Pascale A, et al. (March 2008). “Cognition enhancers between treatment and doping the mind”. Pharmacol. Res . 57(3): 196-213. doi : 10.1016 / j.phrs.2008.02.004 . PMID  18353672 .
  27. Jump up^ Bob Aubrey,Managing Your Aspirations: Developing Personal Enterprise in theMcGraw-HillGlobal Workplace2010ISBN 978-0-07-131178-6, page 9
  28. Jump up^ http://cognitiveworld.com/articles/the-internet-of-autonomous-things-162
  29. Jump up^ https://www.researchgate.net/publication/267326866_The_Internet-of-Autonomous-Things_IoAT
  30. Jump up^ http://www.controleng.com/single-article/iot-to-ioat-internet-of-autonomous-things-devices-provides-solutions/3900105bf5bae830aabdbf1536777893.html
  31. Jump up^ https://vision.cloudera.com/big-data-critical-in-iot-to-the-progression-from-connected-to-autonomous-things/
  32. Jump up^ https://www.conres.com/it-products-solutions/news-events/top-10-tech-trends-autonomous-agents-things/
  33. Jump up^ “Longest frozen embryo baby born” . BBC News. July 6, 2005 . Retrieved 14 January 2009 .
  34. Jump up^ “Triplets born 13 years apart” . Times Online. July 6, 2005 . Retrieved 24 January 2010 .
  35. ^ Jump up to:c World Transhumanist Association – (2002-2005). “The transhumanist FAQ” (PDF) . Retrieved 2006-08-27 .
  36. Jump up^ Kurzweil, Raymond (2005). The Singularity is Near . Penguin Books -. ISBN  0-14-303788-9 .
  37. Jump up^ (Kurzweil 2005,p.260) or seeAdvanced Human Intelligencewhere he defines strong AI as “machine intelligence with the full range of human intelligence.”
  38. Jump up^ The Age of Artificial Intelligence: George John at TEDxLondonBusinessSchool 2013
  39. Jump up^ Newell & Simon 1976
  40. Jump up^ Babies Designer: Ethical Considerations – Nicholas Agar – An ActionBioscience.org original article
  41. Jump up^ Anders, Sandberg; Nick, Boström (2008). Whole Brain Emulation: A Roadmap (PDF) . Technical Report # 2008-3. Future of Humanity Institute, Oxford University . Retrieved 5 April 2009 . The basic idea is to take a particular brain, scan its structure in detail, and build a software model of it that is so faithful to the original that, when it is appropriate for hardware, it will behave in the same way as the original brain .
  42. Jump up^ “Nanosystems Glossary” . E-drexler.com.
  43. Jump up^ Drexler, Eric K., and Marvin Minsky. Engines of creation. Fourth Estate, 1990.
  44. Jump up^ The Kill Switch (The X-Files)
  45. Jump up^ “Foresight Institute Prize Descriptions and Applications” . Foresight Nanotech Institute . Retrieved 10 April 2011 .
  46. Jump up^ Coming to grips with intelligent machinesStefanie Olsen, staff writer,CNET, September 7, 2007
  47. Jump up^ Smarter than thou? ,San Francisco Chronicle, 12 May 2006
  48. Jump up^ Martin, Douglas (July 11, 2000). “Futurist Known as FM-2030 Is Dead at 69” . The New York Times . Retrieved 2009-08-25 .
  49. Jump up^ “Transcend: Nine Steps to Living Well Forever” . Rayandterry.com . Retrieved 26 October 2014 .
  50. Jump up^ “The Genomic Bodhisattva” . H + Magazine. 2009-09-16 . Retrieved 2011-11-16 .
  51. Jump up^ Anders Sandberg and Nick Bostrom (2006):Converging Cognitive Enhancements, Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 1093: 201-227
  52. Jump up^ Anders Sandberg, Nick Bostrom (2008):Whole Brain Emulation: A Roadmap Technical Report# 2008-3, Future of Humanity Institute, Oxford University
  53. Jump up^ Toby Ord, Rafaela Hillerbrand, Anders Sandberg (2008):Probing the Improbable: Methodological Challenges for Risks with High Probabilities and High Stakes

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