Postbiological evolution

Postbiological Evolution is a form of Evolution qui HAS transitioned from a biological paradigm , driven by the spread of genes, to a nonbiological (eg, cultural or technological ) paradigm, presumably driven by Some alternative replicator (eg, same gold temes ) and Potentially resulting in extinction, obsolescence, or trophic reorganization of the train. Researchers anticipating a postbiological universe tends to describe this transition as a mark of the maturation and potential convergence of high technologies , such as artificial intelligence goldnanotechnology . [1] [2]

Evolution from biological to mechanical

Cultural evolution

The dictionary definition of Evolution is any process of formation, growth or development. In biological evolution the main principle behind this development is survival, we evolved to become stronger and quicker, we also evolved to become intelligent. But as we became intelligent biological evolution subsided to a new concept, cultural evolution . Cultural evolution moves a much faster than biological evolution and is one reason why it is not very well understood. But as survival is still the most important factor for that survival, we can reasonably assume that cultural evolution will progress in the direction of further intelligence and knowledge.

Intelligence Principle

Cultural evolution progressing in this way and being based on the intelligence of the Intelligence Principle ; this was suggested by Dr. Steven J Dick.

“The maintenance, improvement and perpetuation of knowledge and intelligence can be improved, and it can be improved” (Dick 1996)

If cultural evolution progresses in this direction then due to cultural evolution is much faster than biological, the limiting factor becomes the biology and the capability of our brains. Currently the most probable solution to this problem is artificial intelligence , (AI). Experts in AI even believe it holds the potential and capability for a postbiological earth in the next several generations, (Moravec 1988, 1999). It could be used to solve scientific problems and analyze situations much faster and more accurately than our own minds.

Transition to purely postbiological

The move to a complete postbiological stage has two different routes. One road is the change of human consciousness from a biological vessel into a mechanical; this would require the digitization of human consciousness. A mechanical based receptor is expected to increase the power of understanding the human consciousness exponentially, and also eliminate the weakness of a biological form. This road is therefore a logical progression through cultural evolution with survival and the pursuit of knowledge and intelligence at its center.

The first road requires a high level of technology, so it would be possible to take a long time, this results in another possible road to a completely postbiological civilization (PBC). The other road is the complete replacement of human consciousness by AI, for this human race would have been replaced by our own creation of AI. There are many reasons for this road, such as natural disaster, disease, which would result in the loss of the human species.

The future of the human race through cultural evolution is not known and the possible post-biological outcomes are infinite, so to address what we could evolve into is almost futile. But Hans Moravec predicted that;

“What we are doing is not oblivion but rather a future which, from our point of view, is best described as ‘post-biological’ or even ‘supernatural.'” It is a world in the history of cultural change, usurped by its own artificial progeny ”

Evolution of a postbiological universe

The possible forms a PBC may be different as in biological evolution, if not more. But from our knowledge of technology and with the intelligence principle we can make some predictions.

Limitations on a postbiological civilization

Heat dispersion

The current major limitations imposed on computation are limited storage space, power processing, gathering chips, inefficiency of their human operators and heat dispersion. The only one that is fundamental and stable is heat dispersion because this is due to the laws of physics. In calculating the greater amount of information to be calculated, (I) the greater energy needed (E), the energy needed is also proportional to another factor, the temperature, (T).

E = KIT

Where K is a constant. Therefore, the greater the temperature the greater the energy needed, and so the greater the inefficiency is also. If we now apply the PBC would move to reduce the temperature and increase the efficiency and computational power. In the universe, the most important source of heat transfer is via radiation , therefore a PBC would look to migrate to an area of ​​low radiation and low temperature. If we now observe the galaxy we see that the most radiation is generated by the galactic center by both the high stellar and the highly energetic events such as supernova . Therefore, the coldest regions are away from the galactic center or inside giant molecular clouds. Giant molecular clouds being very low in temperature (T ~ 10K) are areas of giant star formation and the temperature in one location is irregular, which would make it unsuitable for a PBC.

Metals

Another factor affecting PBC would be the abundance of metals and heavier elements needed for expansion and repair. The highest concentration of these elements is found near the galactic center, where they are created by massive stars. But to a PBC with advanced technology in the production of metals via stellar nucleosynthesis is highly inefficient, converting only to small amounts of hydrogen nuclei and the high loss of energy that is produced in the nuclear fusion . Therefore, a PBC would most likely have the ability to produce heavier nuclei through controlled fusion and minimizes the energy lost.

Galactic area

By GTZ, Galactic habitable zone (GHZ) for biological life. Where temperatures are low enough to be maximized, this level of efficiency is also available for fusion, this most likely lies on the outskirts of the galaxy .

Migration theory

A migration hypothesis exists that takes the GTZ into account. A PBC would probably be inefficient and lengthy to us, but it could not be more efficient than a few times. the energy required in transportation. The idea of ​​interstellar migrations already exists in literature (eg Badescu and Cathcart 2000 ).

Implications of postbiological civilization in astrobiology

Assumptions needed for a postbiological civilization

In the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) the main focus is on biological life. But the timescale of intelligent biological life could be very short; already some experts believe that we could see a postbiological earth in the next few generations. According to Steven J. Dick , for a PBC, we must make assumptions:

  1. That evolution by natural selection results in intelligence beyond the earth;
  2. That extraterrestrial intelligence is older than human intelligence;
  3. That intelligence results in culture;
  4. That culture evolves; and
  5. That increasing intelligence is a central goal of cultural evolution.

Timescale over which a postbiological civilization can form

We know that assumptions 1, 3, 4, and 5 can take place on the Earth. For assumption 2 we must consider the term of the Drake equation , and the timescale of which intelligent biological life can form. Around 1 billion Years After the start of the universe the first sun-like star HAD FORMED, and There Were enough around heavy Elements for planet formation ( 1998 , Larson and Bromm 2001). From the earth we know that intelligent life can form within 5 trillion years, this puts on a lower life span than 6 billion years ago. PBC is negligible compared to the astronomical timescale. This means we were already looking at a postbiological universe. In our own sun-like stars formed around 4 billion years ago we could already have a PBC in our galaxy that formed 3-4 billion years ago.

Implications for the search for life

If we consider this possibility of a PBC in our galaxy we are still faced with Fermi’s paradox . However many of the proposed solutions for Fermi’s paradox also hold true for a PBC. In terms of extraterrestrial life and astrobiologybecause of the almost infinite possible forms of PBC could be used in this research. For this reason even though there is a logical argument for the existence of PBCs.

Ethics

See also: Transhumanism

While in some circles the expression “postbiological evolution” is roughly synonymous with human genetic engineering , [3] [4] it is used most often to refer to the general application of the convergence of nanotechnology , biotechnology , information technology , and cognitive science ( NBIC) to improve human performance . [5]

Since the 1990s, several academics (such as some of the fellows of the Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies [6] ) have risen to become cogent advocates of the case for human enhancement while other academics (such as the members of President Bush’s Council on Bioethics [7] ) have become its most outspoken critics. [8]

Advocacy of the case for human enhancement is a “synonym of” transhumanism “, a controversial ideology and movement which has emerged to support the recognition and protection of the right of citizens to maintain or modifytheir own minds and bodies ; so do guarantee the freedom of choice and informed consent of human enhancement technologies on themselves and their children. [9]

Neuromarketing Zack Lynch Consultant Argues That neurotechnologies will-have a more immediate effect is society than gene therapy and will face less resistance as a pathway of radical human enhancement. He also argues that the concept of ” enablement ” needs to be added to the debate over “therapy” versus “enhancement”. [10]

Although many proposals of human enhancement rely on fringe science , the concept and prospect of human enhancement has sparked public controversy . [11] [12] [13]

Many critics argued That “human enhancement” is a loaded term qui HAS eugenic overtones Because It May Imply the improvement of human hereditary traits to Attain A universally accepted norm of biological fitness (at the can expense of human biodiversity and neurodiversity ), and therefore can evoke negative reactions far beyond the specific meaning of the term. In addition, they conclude that enhancements which are self-evidently good, like “less diseases”, are more controversial about ADHD arguably demonstrates. [14]

HOWEVER, The Most common criticism of human enhancement Is That it is gold will Often be Practiced with a reckless and selfish short-term outlook That Is unaware of the long-term consequences are Individuals and the rest of society, Such As the fear That Some These enhancements will create more physical or mental advantages, and they may be used for such enhancements and further development between the “haves” and “have-nots”. [15] [16] [17]

Accordingly, some advocates, who want to use more language, and advance the public interest in so-called “human enhancement technologies”, prefer the term “enablement” over “enhancement”; [18] defend and promote rigorous, independent safety testing of enabling technologies; more affordable, universal access to these technologies. [8]

See also

  • Posthumanism

References

  1. Jump up^ The Biological Universe: The Twentieth Century Extraterrestrial Life Debate and the Limits of Science, Dr. Steven Dick (Cambridge University Press, 1996). ASIN B000UUKKY6ISBN 9780521663618
  2. Jump up^ Children’s Mind: The Future of Robot and Human Intelligence, Moravec, H. (Harvard University Press 1988: Cambridge, MA).
  3. Jump up^ Agar, Nicholas (2004). Liberal Eugenics: In Defense of Human Enhancement . ISBN  1-4051-2390-7 .
  4. Jump up^ Parens, Erik (2000). Human Enhancement Features: Ethical and Social Implications . Georgetown University Press . ISBN  0-87840-780-4 .
  5. Jump up^ Roco, Mihail C .; Bainbridge, William Sims , eds. (2004). Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance . Springer. ISBN  1-4020-1254-3 .
  6. Jump up^ Bailey, Ronald (2006). “The Right to Human Enhancement: And also uplifting animals and the rapture of the nerds” . Retrieved 2007-03-03 .
  7. Jump up^ Members of the President’s Council on Bioethics (2003). Beyond Therapy: Biotechnology and the Pursuit of Happiness . President’s Council on Bioethics .
  8. ^ Jump up to:b Hughes, James (2004). Citizen Cyborg : Why Democratic Societies Must Respond to the Redesigned Human of the Future . Westview Press . ISBN  0-8133-4198-1 .
  9. Jump up^ Ford, Alyssa (May-June 2005). “Humanity: The Remix” . Utne Magazine. Retrieved 2007-03-03 .
  10. Jump up^ RU Sirius (2005). “The NeuroAge: Zack Lynch In Conversation With RU Sirius” . Life Enhancement Products . Retrieved 2007-02-02 .
  11. Jump up^ The Royal Society & The Royal Academy of Engineering (2004). “Nanoscience and Nanotechnologies (Ch. 6)” (PDF) . Retrieved 2006-12-05 .
  12. Jump up^ European Parliament (2006). “Technology Assessment on Converging Technologies” (PDF) . Retrieved 2006-12-06 .
  13. Jump up^ European Parliament (2009). “Human Enhancement” (PDF) . Retrieved 2010-01-10 .
  14. Jump up^ Carrico, Dale (2007). “Modification, Consent, and Prosthetic Self-Determination” . Retrieved 2007-04-03 .
  15. Jump up^ Mooney, Pat Roy (2002). “Beyond Cloning: Making Well People” Better ” “. Retrieved 2007-02-02 .
  16. Jump up^ Fukuyama, Francis (2002). Our Posthuman Future : Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution . Farrar Straus & Giroux. ISBN  0-374-23643-7 .
  17. Jump up^ Institute on Biotechnology and the Human Future . “Human” Enhancement” ” . Retrieved 2007-02-02 .
  18. Jump up^ Good, Better, Best: The Human Quest for Enhancement, Enita A. Williams, 2006

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