Russian cosmism

Russian cosmism is a philosophical and cultural movement that emerged in Russia in the early 20th century. It entails a broad theory of natural philosophy , combining elements of religion and ethics with a history and philosophy of the origin , evolution and future existence of the cosmos and humankind . It combines Eastern and Western philosophical traditions as well as the Russian Orthodox Church .

One of the influences on Proletkult , and after the October Revolution , the term came to be applied to “the poetry of such writers as Mikhail Gerasimov and Vladimir Kirillov …: emotional paeans to physical labor, machines, and the collective of industrial workers … organized around the image of the universal ‘Proletarian,’ who strides from the earth to conquer planets and stars. ‘ [1] This form of cosmism, along with the writings of Nikolai Fyodorov , was a strong influence on Andrei Platonov .

Many ideas of the Russian cosmists were later developed by those in the transhumanist movement. [2]


Among the representatives of Russian cosmism was Nikolai Fyodorovich Fyodorov (1828-1903), an advocate of radical life by means of scientific methods, human immortality and resurrection of dead people.

Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935) was among the pioneers of theoretical space exploration and cosmonautics . In 1903, he published the пространствъ реактивными приборами ( The Exploration of Cosmic Space by Means of Reactive Devices [Rockets] ), the first serious scientific work on space travel. Tsiolkovsky believed that colonizing space would lead to the perfection of the human race, with immortality and a carefree existence. He also developed ideas of the “animated atom” ( panpsychism ), and “radiant mankind”. In 1881 Russian revolutionary and rocket Nikolai Kibalchich pioneer proposed an idea of ​​pulsedrocket propulsion by combustion of explosives, which was an early precursor for Project Orion .

Other cosmists included Vladimir Vernadsky (1863-1945), who developed the notion of noosphere , and Alexander Chizhevsky (1897-1964), pioneer of ” heliobiology ” (study of the sun’s effect on biology). [3] [4] [5] A minor planet , 3113 Chizhevskij (discovered by Soviet astronomer Nikolai Stepanovich Chernykh in 1978) is named after him. [6]

See also

  • Rerikhism
  • Russian Futurism
  • Russian philosophy
  • sobornost


  1. Jump up^ Thomas Seifrid,A Companion To Andrei Platonov’sThe Pit Foundation (Academic Studies Press, 2009:ISBN 1-934843-57-1), pp. 69-70.
  2. Jump up^ Art works by Russian cosmism painter XX – XXI ct. Catalog of exhibition 2013 . Roerich museum. 2013 . Retrieved 19 October 2015 .
  3. Jump up^ LV Golovanov, Alexander Chizhevsky entry in theGreat Russian Encyclopedia, Moscow, 2001 edition. SeeGoogle.Translate version of the article from the Russian version of the Encyclopedia.
  4. Jump up^ Soiuz Pisatelei, Soviet Literature, Issues 1-6,p. 188, Foreign Languages ​​Publishing House, 1982.
  5. Jump up^ James T. Andrews, “Red cosmos: KE Tsiolkovskii, grandfather of Soviet rocketry”, Issue 18 Centennial of Flight Series,p. 114, Texas A & M University Press, 2009,ISBN 1-60344-168-9,ISBN 978- 1-60344-168-1
  6. Jump up^ Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – p.257
  7. Jump up^ Tsiolkovsky, Konstantin. “Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky quotes” . Quotations . ThinkExist.

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